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LEWIS SHERMAN From The History of Northern Wisconsin, Vol II. Chicago: Western Historical Pub. Co., 1881, p. 533 Lewis Sherman, firm of L. Sherman & Company, manufacturers of leather and dealers in shoe findings, Manitowoc, was born in Walpole, N. H., May 1, 1811. In the Winter of 1834-35, he came to Ashtabula County, Ohio, and there taught a district school that season. In the Spring of 1835, he removed to Naperville, Ill., and worked at the millwright business for several Winters thereafter; removing to Essex Co., N. Y., where his father had established a tannery. He and his brother assisted in the business. In 1840, he assumed the management of the tannery, remaining eight years, when he returned to Naperville, Ill., and carried on the boot and shoe business for two years. In 1850 he went to Manitowoc Rapids, engaging in the manufacture of leather. Soon after, he built his present tannery in Manitowoc, and discontinued the boot and shoe business. *** LEWIS SHERMAN (I think this is probably the same Sherman as above) Manitouwoc [old spelling] County Herald September 6, 1851, Vol. 1 No. 41, 2nd page Column 5 New Tannery. Lewis Sherman, an enterprising and worthy citizen of Manitouwoc Rapids, is erecting a fine large building at this place for a Tannery. We understand that it is nearly completed, and the manufacturing of leather will be commenced in a few weeks.

MR. SHERMAN From the Manitowoc County Chronicle Two Rivers Wisconsin, June 1875 An accident which came near resulting seriously occurred in our city on Monday last. While Mr. Sherman was conveying Mrs. Burnett to his home, the buggy by some means or other ran upon the heels of the horse, frightening it and causing it to run. Mr. Sherman guided the animal against a steep bank, and at one time the couple were in imminent danger from the horse falling backwards upon them. But fortunately no such catastrophe occurred. They were both slightly injured, but were doubtless thankful to escape as well as they did.

LEWIS SHIMEK This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.580-583. Lewis Shimek, a representative citizen and successful agriculturist of Manitowoc Rapids, was born in the town of Rockland, August 22, 1860, and is a son of Joseph Shimek. In 1856 Joseph Shimek came to the United States from Bohemia, bringing with him his wife Mary and three children, Frank, Wenzl and Joseph. Locating in Manitowoc county, he took up wild land near Reedsville, and remained there eight years, and there three children were born, Stephen, Charles and Lewis. He then took his family to Port Washington and lived there for three years in order that his children might have the benefits to be derived in the schools of a larger town. The land which is now being operated by Stephen Shimek was purchased by his father in 1867, and there he continued to operate until his retirement in 1883, when he moved to the city of Manitowoc and resided there until his death, September 28, 1910, at the age of eighty-two years. His wife passed away in 1892, and was sixty-eight years old at the time of her death. Stephen Shimek received his education in the schools of Reedsville and Port Washington, and as a lad worked on his fathers' farm. At the age of twenty-one he began to learn the carpenter's trade, and for the next thirty years was engaged in doing contract work, erecting many of this section's largest residences and barns. He took charge of the home farm at the age of twenty-six years and here he has continued to live while following carpentry. In 1880 Mr. Shimek married Miss Anna Benisek, a daughter of Mathias and Pauline Benisek, and they have seven children, Lotta, Jamiel, Anna, Clara, Joseph, Elsie and Anita. Lewis Shimek received his education in the schools of the township of Manitowoc Rapids, and worked on the home farm until he was twenty-four years of age, at which time he purchased the land on which he is now carrying on general farming operations. This tract he has developed from a wild waste of stumps, timber and swamp into one of the best cultivated farms in his township, and in 1891 he erected a handsome residence to take the place of the small house which he at first occupied. In 1884 Mr. Shimek was married to Miss Appelen Benisek, a daughter of Mathias Benisek, and they have had six children, Hugo, Otto, Cornelia, Emma, Leo and Lola.

WENZEL SHIMON This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.219. There are very few Bohemians in this country who have not succeeded in life, for there is something in the Bohemian character that makes for success. They know how to work, save and invest, and in a comparatively short time accumulate a competency, often succeeding where an American-born man fails. This is true in nearly all lines of business, but especially is it so in farming, and no better example can be found than the career of Wenzel Shimon, of the town of Rapids, who, handicapped by a lack of knowledge of the English language, has won a place for himself among the leading men of his town through the force of his own earnest endeavor. Mr. Shimon was born in 1864, in Bohemia, and is a son of Albert and Annie (Feche) Shimon, natives of that country. Albert Shimon was born in 1836, and came to this country with his family in 1865, settling in Cooperstown, Manitowoc county, where he purchased wild land. He erected a log house and cleared his farm for cultivation and here the family resided for thirty-five years. He was engaged in farming up to the time of his retirement, and now makes his home with his son, Wenzel. Wenzel Shimon was one of a family of three children, and was brought up to farming, working on his father's farm until the latter's retirement, at which time he bought his present farm in the town of Rapids. He has always been a hard and faithful worker and his persistence has been rewarded by the accumulation of an excellent property. Men like Mr. Shimon are examples of what can be accomplished by those determined to succeed and their careers should inspire others to like endeavors. In 1889 Mr. Shimon was married to Miss Rosa Veleble, born in Cooperstown, a daughter of John Veleble. She died in 1898, leaving two daughters and one son. In 1899 Mr. Shimon married Ludmela Hoverick, a native of Bohemia, and they have had six children. Both are devout members of the Catholic church.

T.C. SHOVE From The History of Northern Wisconsin, Vol II. Chicago: Western Historical Pub. Co., 1881, p. 533 Banker, Manitowoc, is a native of Onondaga, N. Y., born June 3, 1831; came to Manitowoc in 1850, where he has since resided. He commenced the study of law in 1853; was admitted to the bar in 1858. He has the agency for several fire insurance companies, some of which he has held since 1854. He soon after drited into the banking business, which he has since continued. He was Deputy Collector of Internal Revenues from 1869 to January 1876. Mr. Shove is one of the oldest settlers of Manitowoc, and a warm friend of education, and has had his full share of satisfaction and pleasure in its growth and prosperity. *********** Manitowoc Tribune, Vol. 18 No. 20, Thursday, August 31, 1871, Page 4 Column 3 "Quare." - Last week, while workmen were engaged in digging a well on the Dairy Farm of T.C.Shove, near the Rapids, and having reached the depth of 33 feet, a part of which was through solid clay, and still finding no water, but soon expected to find it, left their tools at the bottom in the evening when they quit work, expecting of course, to find them the next morning to go to work with. Much to their surprise, as they reached the well the next morning, they found 31 feet of water in it, and still rising, till it reached the top, and now flows a continual stream of pure sparkling water. The well as dug upon a side hill, and is supposed to have come so near the lead of some spring that the water worked its way through the clay some time during the night.

WILLIAM SHWANTES This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.324-327. William Shwantes, one of the highly esteemed residents of Two Rivers township, is the owner of a farm of one hundred and ten acres situated on section 33 and is an honored veteran of the Civil war. He was born March 5, 1843. in Pomerania, Germany, and is a son of Frederick and Freda (Miller) Shwantes. Mr. Shwantes' parents were married in Germany and came to the United States in 1856 on the sailing vessel Rudolph. Landing at New York city, they came west to Manitowoc county and secured eighty acres of wild land on section 33, Two Rivers township, on which had been erected a small log cabin, which was the family home for ten years. Frederick Shwantes then went to Winfield, Kansas, where he died at the age of seventy-two years. His wife remained on the old homestead in Two Rivers township and there passed away when she was in her seventy-sixth year. They were faithful members of the Lutheran church. Of ten children born to them six are still surviving, namely: Fred, who is engaged in farming in Winfield, Kansas; Freda, who married Henry Tiede, of Two Rivers, Wisconsin; William; Sophia, who lives on the homestead; Ida, who married Fred Miller, of Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin; and Ernst, who is living in Oshkosh. William Shwantes attended school in his native country but after coming to America his services were needed on the home farm and he had no chance to improve his education. He worked on the home farm until August, 1862, when he enlisted at Portage, Michigan, in Company I, Twenty-third Regiment, Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and first went to Louisville, Kentucky, where his regiment joined Sherman's army, participating in the Battles of Atlanta and Tunnel Hill. They then took part in the siege of Knoxville and the battle of Chattanooga and the regiment then became a part of the Twenty-third Army Corps and fought in the battle of Nashville. They next went by boat to Fort Anderson and on to Raleigh, North Carolina, and at Louisboro, in that state, Mr. Shwantes received his discharge, going to Detroit, Michigan, where he was mustered out and thence returned home. After his marriage he went to live with his parents and took care of them until their deaths, and in 1909 he purchased a new home for himself and family, sixty acres being a part of the old homestead and fifty additional acres being located on the same section. In 1867 Mr. Shwantes was married to Miss Emma Kortens, who was born in Brunswick, Germany, and came to America with her parents in 1855, the family settling in Kossuth township, Manitowoc county. Six children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Shwantes: Johanna, who resides at home; William, a contractor and builder of Manitowoc; Ida, a trained nurse in San Diego, California; Julius, a machinist of Green Bay, Wisconsin; Ernst, on the old home farm; and Emma, an art teacher in Los Angeles, California. Mr. Shwantes and his family are connected with the Evangelical church of Two Rivers. He has all his life been identified with agricultural pursuits and is rated among the leading farmers of his township, having acquired deep insight into farming conditions here. He works constantly to improve his property along scientific lines so as to get the best results. He is a republican in politics but has never desired to hold public office.
William Shwantes and family

HENRY SIBREE This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.545-546. Henry Sibree won more than local prominence as an able member of the bar of Manitowoc county and became widely known for his active support of and helpful interest in the cause of education. These and other features in his life record made him a valued citizen of the county. He was born in Dumbarton, Scotland, March 25, 1825, and his boyhood days were spent in his native land. When twenty-one years of age he was sent to the United States to teach the people of Lodi, New Jersey, how to make fast black and white prints. His opportunities for attending school had been somewhat limited and while in New Jersey he availed himself of the chance to attend night school, thus supplementing his early training. He afterward went to Providence, Rhode Island, in order to teach the process of manufacturing fast black and white prints, thus becoming a pioneer in the business in the new world. In 1848 he sailed around South America, touching at Rio Janeiro, Cape Horn and Valparaiso, Chile, whence he continued on to California, where for three years he engaged in mining gold with good success. Previous to leaving New York he had married and immediately afterward started on his voyage to the far west. In 1851 he returned to the eastern metropolis by way of Mexico, traveling the whole distance from the Pacific to the gulf coast on mule back and thence to New York. In that city he engaged in contract teaming for wholesale and importing houses, establishing on John street a large and lucrative business, which for many years was conducted under his name. The love for an outdoor life which had grown strong within him during his stay in California kept calling him to the west, so disposing of his interests in the east he traveled by way of the Erie canal and the Great Lakes to Wisconsin, arriving in Manitowoc county in 1858. He settled in Kossuth township, where he engaged in farming, but finding that he was not adapted to agricultural pursuits, he remained on the farm but a short time. He then established his home in the city of Manitowoc and entered the law office of J. D. Markham. Later he was admitted to the bar and from that time forward continuously practiced law in Manitowoc county. He served for two or three terms as district attorney and was recognized as an able lawyer, carefully preparing his cases which he presented before the court in a clear and logical manner, seldom failing to win the verdicts desired. He readily saw the relation between the facts and principles of law and, moreover, in the presentation of evidence he reasoned clearly from cause to effect. Mr. Sibree was married in 1848 to Miss Mary Vreeland, a native of Paterson, New Jersey, born September 18, 1830. She was in her sixtieth year when on the 18th of April, 1890, she passed away. In their family were five children who reached adult age. Dr. H. C. Sibree, a successful physician, is conducting a hospital at Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin. Gertrude, who died at the age of twenty-four years, was one of the most charming and lovely young women that Manitowoc has ever known and her loss was deeply regretted by an extensive circle of friends as well as her immediate family. Sara, who is the widow of Captain Edward Bornemann, of Chicago, who served throughout the Civil war as a volunteer from Illinois, was educated in the schools of Manitowoc, being one of the first graduates of the high school here. She also spent two years in the University of Illinois School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, being graduated with honors. She is recognized as a woman of unusual force and intellectual attainments. During the campaign of 1912 she has had charge of the affairs of the executive committee of the state of Illinois, managing Governor Woodrow Wilson's campaign, with headquarters in Chicago. She owns a beautiful summer home at No. 610 North Fourth street in Manitowoc, commanding a splendid view of Lake Michigan, and expects to return here when her working days are over. Lottie, the next in the family, is deceased. Annie is the wife of Henry Bush, official reporter of the Fourth Judicial circuit of Wisconsin. Henry Sibree, the father of these children, became widely known in Manitowoc county because of his professional prominence, his business activity and his helpful interest in public affairs. During the long illness of Jerry Crowley, he acted as editor of the Manitowoc Pilot. He had a wide acquaintance among the distinguished men of the country and when residing in New York city belonged to a literary club which numbered among its members Henry Ward Beecher and George B. Cheever. During all of his life he was closely identified with educational interests and in connection with K.K. Jones, one of his clients, he succeeded in establishing the first public library in Manitowoc, known as the Jones Library and served as its president. He supported the democratic party and always took an active interest in politics, in fact he was greatly interested in every question of vital importance to the city, state and nation and at no time was neglectful of the duties of citizenship.

LENA SIEBERT Manitowoc Herald Times Sept 2, 1965, Thursday PAGE: T5 COLUMN: 2 SIEBERT Mrs. Ernest Siebert, 75, of Reedsville, died Thursday morning at home. Funeral services will be 2 pm Saturday at Reedsville Funeral Home the Rev. George J. Knudson officiating. Burial will be in Zion Evangelical Lutheran Cemetery, Morrison. Mrs. Siebert was born May 7, 1890, in the Town of Maple Grove, daughter of the late Herman and Mathilda Birkholtz Maertz. She was married to Mr. Siebert Dec. 13, 1913 at St.. James Evangelical Lutheran Church, Reedsville. The couple made its home at Reedsville. Besides her husband, Mrs. Siebert is survived by a son, Gilford, of Wayside, four brothers, Albert & Leonard, of Reedsville and Louis & Erwin, of Rt. 1, Reedsville; two sisters, Mrs. Ida Fokett and Mrs. Elsie Treichel, of Reedsville and two grandchildren. Friends may call at the funeral home after 3 pm Friday. ********* VOLUME #61 PAGE #310 NAME: Lena Siebert COLOR/SEX: W/F OCCUPATION: housewife AGE: 75 FATHER: Herman Maertz MOTHER: Matilda Birkholtz BIRTHPLACE OF DECEASED: Wisconsin BIRTHDATE: May 7, 1890 CERTIFICATION: Married HUSBAND OF DECEASED: Ernst G. Siebert DEATH DATE: Sept. 2, 1965 CAUSE OF DEATH: obstructive jaundice and adeno caricuroma of cerman heart duct LENGTH OF DISEASE: 3 months PLACE OF DEATH: Reedsville, Wisconsin RESIDENCE: Reedsville NAME OF INFORMANT: Ernst G. Siebert - 74 yrs old PLACE OF BURIAL: Community Cemetery in Brillion, WI DATE OF BURIAL: Sept 4, 1965 DATE OF REGISTRATION: Sept 10, 1965

EDWARD SIEKER This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.246-247. The prosperity which generally prevails throughout Manitowoc county is indicated by the number of its native sons who still reside within its borders. Among these is counted Edward Sieker, who since 1904 has owned and operated in Newton township the farm on which he was reared. He was born November 29, 1887, on his grandfather's farm near Rapids, the son of Frederick and Lena (Puls) Sieker. The grandfather, Frederick Sieker, Sr., and his wife came to America from Holland in 1846, when their son Frederick, Jr., was only six years of age. They settled first in the state of New York, but after a few years removed to Manitowoc county, where they purchased land near Rapids and resided until Mr. Sieker's death, in 1890. Frederick Sieker, Jr., was born in Holland in 1840 and as a lad was associated with the work on his father's farm, where he remained until he was twenty-three years of age. At that time he enlisted in the Civil war, joining Company I, of the Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Regiment. He served until the close of the war, after which he returned to this county. Here he married Miss Lena Puls, who was a native of Germany and was brought to this county by her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Puls. In 1887 Mr. Sieker purchased a farm in Newton township, which he operated until 1904, when he and his wife retired and they now live in Centerville. In their family were five children. Edward Sieker received his education in the neighborhood district schools and has always worked on his father's farm. In 1904 he purchased the same, and is now operating it. The family are members of the German Lutheran church at Newton. On December 26, 1911, Mr. Sieker was united in marriage with Miss Lydia Fick, a native of Manitowoc county and daughter of Henry and Emilie (Filter) Fick. With that stalwart character inherited from his worthy ancestry, Edward Sieker works hard and although yet a young man is recognized as a representative and enterprising citizen of his community. He is interested in all that pertains to the general progress and improvement and has given his cooperation to many movements for the public good. He has very capably taken up the work laid down by his father and obtains remarkable results as a successful and scientific farmer.

FRANK G. SIEWERT From the "Souvenir Book of The Diamond Jubilee of St. Casimir's Congregation At Northeim (Newton) Wisconsin 1868 - 1943" Former State Treasurer of South Dakota

Frank G. Siewert was born at Cleveland, Wis., Jan. 20, 1899. Educated at St. Casimir's parochial school at Northeim, and the public school at Cleveland, Wis., high school at Manitowoc, and the University of Wisconsin, at Madison, Wis. While there, he enlisted in the Students Army Training Corps during the First World War. In 1919 he left for South Dakota, where he settled in the vicinity of Willow Lake to engage in farming, later in banking. In 1932 he was elected South Dakota State Treasurer and reelected in 1934. From several newspaper clippings, bearing Reports of the State Treasury of South Dakota, and dated: Pierre, So. Dakota, July 9, July 10, 1935, it appears that Mr. Frank Siewert was a very capable and successful man in that Department. These newspapers bestowed the highest praise upon him. One carried this headline: "STATE TREASURER SHOWS LARGEST CASH ON HAND." At the conclusion of the second term, Mr. Siewert was appointed for a four years' term to serve as a member of the Unemployment Compensation and Employment Service Commission. At the expiration of this service he moved to Fremont, Nebr. to engage in private business.

JOSEPH ALBERT SIEWERT From the "Souvenir Book of The Diamond Jubilee of St. Casimir's Congregation At Northeim (Newton) Wisconsin 1868 - 1943"

Born Oct. 1, 1901, in the township of Centerville, Manitowoc County, Joseph was baptized at St. Casimir's church, Northeim, Wisconsin. He attended St. Casimir's school until his Confirmation. Afterwards he went to grade-school dist. No. 1 in Centerville. From there he went to Manitowoc high school from 1915 to 1919. He worked in South Dakota from the fall of 1919 to 1922. Thereupon he entered the postal service at the Milwaukee Post Office, on August 1, 1922. He left service Sept. 1, 1929, in order to take up farming in Centerville, but reentered postal service May 1, 1936, where he is employed at present.

WALTER SIEWERT From the "Souvenir Book of The Diamond Jubilee of St. Casimir's Congregation At Northeim (Newton) Wisconsin 1868 - 1943" Walter was born August 12, 1895 in the township of Centerville, Manitowoc County and was baptized at St. Casimir's church, Northeim, Wisconsin. He attended the grade school in his township and graduated in 1912. Thereupon he enrolled in and frequented the Normal School at Stevens Point, Wis., in 1913 and 1914. He taught school at Thorpe, Wis., from 1915-1916. In 1917 he joined the U.S. Army and served for almost two years. After an honorable discharge from the army, he attended Auto-School at Kansas City. From there he went to South Dakota in 1919, where he operated a summer resort at Lake Byron, South Dakota, from 1919 to 1923. From 1923 to 1933 he operated trucks and contracted road work. From 1933 to 1940 he worked for the Government as a Foreman in a C.C.C. Camp and built roads and bridges. In 1940 he bought a Cafe in Custer, South Dakota, which he still operates. In 1941 he acquired a ranch which he operates at present.

ERNEST A. SIGGELKOW This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.529-530. The manufacture of cheese is one of the important industries of eastern Wisconsin and to this Ernest A. Siggelkow is giving his attention. He is a young man possessed of good business ability, and his thorough understanding of the work in which he is now engaged, combined with his laudable ambition and earnest purpose, is bringing to him gratifying success. He has been a lifelong resident of Manitowoc county, his birth having occurred in Centerville township, September 2, 1884. His father, Ludwig Siggelkow, was a native of Germany but came to America when very young, having been only eight years of age at the time he crossed the Atlantic with his parents. The family home was established on a farm in the township of Centerville, and Ludwig Siggelkow has since been identified with agricultural pursuits. He has a farm of sixty acres which is now under a high state of cultivation, and from that property he derives a good annual income although at the present time he is living retired in the village of Centerville, having reached the age of seventy-seven years on the 7th of April, 1912. At one time he was the owner of ninety-eight acres but has since disposed of a portion of this. His wife also survives. The father married twice. He was first married in 1862 and after the death of that wife he wedded Augusta Braun who was born in Germany. In the family were six children. Ernest A. Siggelkow acquired a common-school education and in early life worked upon the home farm for a number of years, assisting his father in the cultivation of the fields. He learned the business of cheese making from his brothers, and in 1907 he came to his present location in Osman where he has since conducted a cheese factory. This is well equipped with modern machinery and he utilizes improved processes in the manufacture of his product which because of its excellence finds a ready sale on the market. On the 26th of April, 1908, Mr. Siggelkow was married to Miss Lena Vogel, a daughter of Richard Vogel, of Centerville township, who is still living. Both Mr. and Mrs. Siggelkow are well known in this locality where they have spent their entire lives and where their circle of friends is almost coextensive with the circle of their acquaintance.

HUBERT SIMON, SR. This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.536-537. Hubert Simon, Sr., has the distinction of having been the first white child born in Meeme township, and because of this a gold medal was awarded him at Milwaukee. His natal day was February 2, 1848, and he has been a witness of almost the entire development and growth of the county as pioneer conditions have been replaced by those which indicate an advanced and progressive civilization. His father, Hubert Simon, was a native of Prussia, Germany, and like many of his fellow countrymen, sought a home and fortune in America. In one of the old-time sailing vessels he crossed the Atlantic in 1846 and for a year and a half remained a resident of New York city, coming thence to Meeme township, Manitowoc county. While in the eastern metropolis he acted as an interpreter at Castle Garden. In 1847 he came to Meeme and settled on a farm. He afterward engaged in land speculation in this county in connection with Fox, Cook & Company and sold much of the land in this section. He found in this field a profitable source of business in which he continued to the time of his death. He was accidentally shot in 1856 and thus passed away when but a comparatively young man. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Catherine Herrings, continued to reside in this county to the time of her death, which occurred in 1887. Hubert Simon, who was the fifth in order of birth in a family of seven children, attended the public schools and also was liberally educated in music in Chicago, where he attended the Conservatory of Music, remaining in that city for a year. For two years thereafter he traveled with John Robinson's circus and then returned to Chicago, where he continued for two years. In 1868 he again came to Manitowoc county and took up farming, having originally a tract of eighty acres, to which he has since added a similar amount. The land is naturally rich and arable and the cultivation which he bestows upon the fields is rewarded with excellent crops. Everything about his place is neat and thrifty in appearance and indicates the practical and progressive methods of the owner. Much of the time he has continued his musical studies although in more recent years he has had comparatively little leisure for the cultivation of the art. In 1899 he established a hotel and saloon at School Hill where he has since resided. Mr. Simon was united in marriage to Miss Mary Hoffman, a daughter of William Hoffman, a native of Germany, as was Mrs. Simon. There are four children by this marriage: Katie, the wife of Herman Schneider, a harness maker of Cleveland, by whom she has three children; Helen, the wife of Herman Gerber, who is living on a farm at Medford, Taylor county, Wisconsin, and has two children; Laura, who is the wife of Joe Likeman, a farmer; and Hubert, who is living on the old homestead. He is married and has an adopted child. Mr. Simon!s long residence in Manitowoc county has made him widely known and his activity in business has gained for him a substantial measure of success. He can remember the time when most of this section of the country was covered with a dense growth of trees—the natural forest—and when the timber was the haunt of much wild game. The Indians had a reservation in the neighborhood and Mr. Simon grew up among them and learned to talk their language. He has rejoiced in what has been accomplished as the work of improvement has been carried forward and has always borne his share in the labor that has brought about present-day conditions.

JOHN NICHOLAS SIMONIS This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.189-190. John Nicholas Simonis, a prosperous business man of Two Rivers, Wisconsin, who is the owner and proprietor of a retail liquor establishment on Seventeenth street, was born February 26, 1842, on the river Mosel, Rhine province, Germany, and is a son of John Hugo and Eva Simonis. John Nicholas Simonis was one of a family of eight children, and came to the United States in 1866, securing employment in the chair factory at Two Rivers, where he continued to work for twenty-two years, and in 1888 entered the saloon business, building a residence and store where he now conducts his business. He has served the town as assessor for four years, and was a member of the old village board, the names of which were cast on the village bell. Fraternally, he is connected with the Sons of Herman. In 1867 Mr. Simonis was united in marriage with Anna Schnitzius, who died, leaving one child, Albert. In 1872, Mr. Simonis was married to Catherine Petri, and to this union there have been born eight children, as follows: Otto; August, who died at the age of thirty-three years; Ernest; Louisa, the wife of Frank Becker, a member of the well known firm of the Becker Manufacturing Company, of Two Rivers; Augusta; Leona; George and Viola.


Cabin owned by Wencil Sinkula which was also the first temporary church of Nativity of Blessed Virgin Mary church in Tisch Mills. Photo from the Wentorf collection at the Two Rivers Lester Library

JOHN SIPEK From "Commemorative Biographical Record of the Upper Wisconsin" by J.H. Beers & Co. 1895 John Sipek, a general and popular hotel-keeper in Antigo, Langlade county, was born in Centerville township, Manitowoc Co., Wis., June 19, 1860, and is a son of Joseph and Anna (Rine) Sipek. Joseph Sipek was the son of Joseph, Sr., and Veronica (Gregor) Sipek, who both died in Austria, and who had five children, as follows: Joseph, Jr.; John, who lives in Green Bay; Wenzel in Austria; and Anna and Catherine, who both came to America. Joseph Sipek, Sr., was a mason by trade, a soldier in 1809 and fought against Napoleon the Great. His son, Joseph Sipek, Jr., was born in Austria, in March 1827, was a shoemaker in that country, married Anna Rine, and had nine children, namely; Catherine (now deceased), Elizabeth, Wenzel, Pauline (deceased), John (the subject of this sketch), Mary, Adolph, Anna and Emma. In 1857 Joseph Sipek, Jr., embarked for America with his family and, after arriving in this country, came direct to Wisconsin, taking up a farm in Centerville township, Manitowoc county, which he improved, and upon which he lived until 1882. He sold out that year, bought land in Township 32 north, Range 11 east, Neva township, resided there until 1891, and then moved to Antigo township. He is still a hale and hearty man, has accumulated what he possessess(sic) by his own perseverance and industry, has reared, educated and helped his children, and still has plenty left. John Sipek, the subject of this sketch, remained at home and assisted his father with the work until he was twenty-one years old, being given school advantages only to the age of thirteen. In 1881, on reaching his majority, he came to Neva township, Langlade county, purchased a farm, his father advancing the money, and resided there some nine years, clearing about sixty acres. On February 8, 1885, he was united in marriage with Emma Skyrevoda, who was born in Manitowoc county, Wis., in 1868, and they had four children: Matilda, Alvina, and John living, and Joseph who died when two years old. The parents of Mrs. Sipek, Anton and Elizabeth (Krache) Skyrevoda, were both born in Austria, and were among the early settlers of Manitowoc county; Anton Skyrevoda has been a farmer by occupation, but now, with his wife, is living retired. They have had five children: Emma (Mrs. Sipek), Adolph, Anna, Mary and Lydia. During the spring of 1890 John Sipek rented his farm in Neva township and came to Antigo, where he bought the land, built his present home, and keeps a hotel called the "Farmers' Home." He is always independent in politics, was school clerk two years, and member of the town board one year. In 1890 he spent some time in visiting different sections of the country, remained about three weeks in Nebraska and about four weeks in California, came from there to Chicago, and then returned home.

EMIL C. SIXTA This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.97-98. Emil C. Sixta, one of the leading business men of Manitowoc, Wisconsin, who has been extensively engaged in the real-estate business for a number of years, is a native of Manitowoc, and was born in 1873, a son of Frank and Anna (Kolinsky) Sixta, natives of Bohemia. They came to Manitowoc in the spring of 1867, Mr. Sixta engaging in the wholesale liquor business until his death, which occurred June 18, 1905. His widow, who still survives, makes her home in this city. They were the parents of four sons: Frank, who is engaged in carrying on the wholesale liquor business founded by his father; Louis, a physician of Schuyler, Nebraska, who owns an interest in the liquor business; Edward, who is also engaged in this business with his brothers; and Emil C. Emil C. Sixta received his education in the public schools of Manitowoc, and was engaged in the business founded by his father and of which he was manager for fourteen years, until 1908, when he entered the real-estate business, purchasing twenty thousand acres of land in the Ontonagon valley in upper Michigan. This land he sells in tracts of eighty or more acres, and he has already located about three hundred farmers, who find the clay-loam soil excellent for agricultural purposes, and entirely free from rock and sand. He has developed a number of towns there and has superintended the building of good roads and bridges, and the erection of manufacturing plants and other industries. The land, that has been developed, has tripled in value, and this section, under Mr. Sixta's able and efficient supervision, is fast becoming one of the most desirable locations in every way to be found in Michigan. On August 15, 1904, Mr. Sixta was married to Irene W. Bleser, daughter of Dan Bleser, of the Kunz-Bleser Company, of Manitowoc, and one son, Frank, has been born to this union. Mrs. Sixta is a consistent member of the Catholic church, and has been prominent in church and charitable work. Mr. Sixta is a popular member of the Elks and the Manitowoc Automobile Club.

FRANK SIXTA This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.91-92. Among the men of foreign birth who, in the course of years, became well established in business in Manitowoc and were successful in the conduct of their various undertakings, Frank Sixta was numbered. He came to the new world from Prague, Austria, in 1867, and shortly after his arrival he established a wholesale liquor business, in connection with which he also dealt in bar supplies. The undertaking prospered from the beginning, and after a few years he admitted a Mr. Arns, of Sheboygan, to a partnership. Later he was again alone in the business and subsequently organized the firm of F. Sixta & Sons, in which he continued until his death, his associates being E. C. and Edward W. Sixta, who became his partners. The former withdrew from the firm, Dr. L. H. Sixta taking his place as a stockholder in 1909. He and his brother Edward W. still carry on the business, the latter having entire charge although both are financially interested. The trade of the house has continually grown until the business now extends all over the state. Frank Sixta erected the building in which the business is conducted. He was a self-made man and very progressive, never faltering in the performance of any duty nor allowing any difficulty or obstacle to bar his path. He worked on persistently and with determination, and as a result of his energies won success. Mr. Sixta was united in marriage to Miss Anna Kolinsky, of Austria, who still survives him. They became the parents of four children: Frank; Louis H., who is a practicing physician; Edward W., who is his father's successor in the management of the liquor business; and Emil, who is engaged in the land business. The father was truly a self-made man. He had nothing to aid him when he started out in life, but he early learned the lesson that there is no royal road to wealth, and as the years passed on his earnest, persistent labor, intelligently directed, brought to him a substantial financial return. He was a public-spirited citizen and one who gave active and helpful support to various measures for the public good. He died in the year 1905 after a connection of almost four decades with the business affairs of the city. Edward W. Sixta, to whom we are indebted for the material furnished concerning his father, was born August 16, 1871, in Manitowoc, and the public schools afforded him his educational privileges, acquainting him with such branches of learning as are deemed essential in the preparation for life's practical and responsible duties. As he approached manhood he became associated with his father in business and for twenty-three years has continued in the same line of trade. The growth of the house has been continuous and the firm has enjoyed a constantly increasing patronage. Mr. Sixta was united in marriage to Miss Olga M. Sousthagen of Manitowoc, and they are well known in social circles here. He votes with the republican party but is not interested in politics as an office seeker. He desires only that the best interests of citizenship and of good government shall be conserved by the party which he supports and is content to leave office holding to others, while he gives his time and energies to the capable control of the business in which he is now engaged.

FRANTISEK SKWOR Frantisek (Frank) Skwor was b. 20 April 1842 in Bohemia, and emigrated with his parents in 1843 when he was 1 year old. He married Anna Tuma on April 3, 1864 in Cooperstown, Manitowoc co., the marriage being performed by a Justice of the Peace John Saiger. Book of Marriages at Register of Deeds, Vol. 2, pg. 192. He died 29 Mar. 1918, burial at Kossuth Cemetery. Frantisek emigrated to Manitowoc co. and bought 160 acres in Gibson twp., and built a log cabin, which is surrounded by the present house. The huge beams under the floor can be felt as you walk across it. The farm was inherited by his son, Wencel, and passed on to Wencel's son. All their children were born at home. Joseph Skwor was born July 23, 1866 and married Rosalie Kriwanek, died in 1949; Adolph Skwor was born November 5, 1868 and married Anna Terch, died 1952; John Skwor was born in 1873 and married Mary Fictum, died 1961; Wencel (Jim) Skwor was born in 1876 and married Mary Trochil, died in 1946; Charles J. Skwor, M.D., was born September 14, 1879 and married Rose Hennen. After her death he married Marie Butz, died on June 20, 1957; Emma Skwor was born September 15, 1880 and married Joseph W. Libal, died on February 9, 1967. This was sent in by a family researcher, her email address can be found on the donors page.


Joseph Skwor and sons, Hugo and Charles at Joseph Skwor Meats, Mishicot, Wisconsin. Photo compliments of Gary Omernick

SKWOR MEAT MARKET Skwor's Meat Market, 326 East Main Street, in Mishicot, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, dates back to 1879 when Adolf Grim deeded the building to Louis Levenhagan. This was the original meat market, much the same as it is now, more than 116 years later. In 1894, Levenhagan deeded the market to Joseph Skwor. Joseph and his wife, Rose, working together, built the business. Rose helped where needed. A petite but strong woman, she could carry a quarter of beef on her shoulder to where it would be trimmed into special cuts of meat. The story, passed down from Joseph Skwor, tells how Joseph actually walked several head of cattle from Mishicot to the Stockyards in Chicago and walked back to Mishicot, in order to get his meat business started. He butchered all sorts of animals and processed them into cuts of meat and sausages which he sold at retail. He established quite a big business by shipping truckloads of veal to Chicago. Joseph and Rose continued in business until their two sons, Charles and Hugo, joined in the business. It then became known as Jos. Skwor and Sons Meats. When Joseph semi-retired, Charles and Hugo entered into a partnership, and a new sign over the door said "Skwor Bros. Meat Market. In 1939, Charles moved to Milwaukee and sold his half of the business to Hugo. It then became Skwor Meat Market. Paul, son of Hugo, helped him, along with hired help. They bought livestock, butchered, retailed meat, made ring bologna, liver sausage, blood sausage, summer sausage, sultz, weiners, and bratwurst from Bohemian and Polish recipes handed down in the family. They cured and smoked their own hams and bacon. Joseph would walk down to the market every day to help. His home was about two blocks away. People would stand in line waiting for "Joe" to wait on them, as he would frequently forget the latest price and charge them for meats at the old, lower price. Joseph, Charles and Hugo could converse in Polish and Bohemian with the early settlers. In the earlier days, sawdust and wood shavings were used to cover the floor where the customers stood, to keep the floor clean and for fragrance. When mothers brought their young children into the meat shop, Joseph and Hugo would give them a cooked and smoked weiner to eat. Before electrical refrigeration was invented, Skwor Meats used large chunks of ice to cool the meat and keep it from spoiling. Hugo invented a gasolene engine-powered saw which would cut ice from the nearby West Twin river, when it was frozen the thickest, usually between the holidays of Christmas and the New Year. The blocks were about 18" x 30" x 24" deep, and several men helped load them into a truck bed to be hauled to the ice house located near the market. Here they were covered with sawdust to keep them from melting. They cut enough ice for their own needs for a whole year, as well as selling it to customers for their ice boxes. After electric refrigerators were available, the ice business was no longer needed. Hugo built insulated containers which fit onto a pick-up truck, and with blocks of ice to keep the meat cool, both Hugo and Charles traveled regular routes throughout the county to bring their meat products to the farmers. Summer was usually a very busy time for the farmers, and they appreciated having their meat brought to them. As children, during the summer vacation, we liked to go along with our Dads to keep them company during the 5-hour trip. In the Spring, the "Mishicot" river would flood -- ice dams caused the water to rise over the banks onto Main Street, running through the building, filling the basement of the Meat Market. Everything was shut down to prevent a fire or explosion until the water subsided. Since that time, a dam has been built to regulate the level of the water. I can remember seeing Dad lead the livestock out of the holding pens to higher ground. Hugo gradually taught Paul the business, and when Hugo retired, he sold the meat market to Paul and LaVerne Skwor. Paul made many improvements in the building and areas of meat processing. He built a new smokehouse, and people from many miles away would come to buy Skwor's Ho-Made Sausages. Skwors had their own spice recipe, developed over the years. It was never written down. As "kids" we would stop after school to watch Dad and Grandpa make sausages and weiners. After the meat was ground and the spices added, it was stuffed into natural animal casings, twisted and tied, and loaded onto carts on which were hung rows of the raw products. When the cart was full, they were pushed to another room and lowered into a huge boiler of boiling water. When they had cooked to about the right time, my sister and I remember Grandpa Joseph fishing a sausage out, holding it up to his ear and squeezing it. If it sounded "like a bullfrog", he would toss it back to cook some more. Since 1959, meat of USDA quality was purchased in quarters from nearby meat packing houses in Green Bay and Milwaukee. Slaughtering was no longer done at Mishicot. At the end of each day, the wooden chopping blocks were scraped and salted, and the saws and knives sharpened, cleaned and put away, ready for the next day's business. In 1961, Hugo retired and his son, Paul Skwor, carried on the same recipe and homemade style of sausage-making. Paul's brother, Peter Skwor, also learned the meat business and helped Paul occasionally. Peter's son, James, attended meat processing school, also learning the trade. Paul's son, Edward, during his summer breaks from studies at the University of Wisconsin, also helped in the business. Edward earned his PhD in Mechanical Engineering, and then worked for the 3M Company, Minneapolis, MN. They cured and smoked their own hams, sausages and bacon. While the smokehouse was being used, Paul got little sleep, because the fire had to be checked every fifteen minutes. Smoking was done the old fashioned way, using sweet maple wood. Paul could smell if the fire was too hot or too low from three rooms away. Water was kept handy, and some was poured in to keep the humidity just right. Smoking of hams usually took three days. Summer sausage, bacon, weiners and bologna were smoked once a week, and were always all sold out before the next batch was made. Paul operated the business until November 23, 1984, when he suddenly passed away of a heart attack. The business was carried on by David and Laverne, Paul's son and widow. Laverne, fondly known as Susie, worked with David in the market, waiting on customers and tying weiners and sausages. They operated the business for six years, until September 1991, just three years shy of Skwor Meats 100th anniversary. Many new government regulations were being enforced, and the town of Mishicot had become more of a tourist area, causing it to be extremely difficult for a profitable business. The "Mom and Pop" businesses were being squeezed out by large-scale stores mainly in shopping centers, a trend all over the country. The Skwor Meats history, written by Victoria Skwor Kellner and Lois Skwor Vawter, 1998.

CHARLES FREMONT SMALLEY This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.589-590. Prominent among the enterprising, energetic and progressive business men of Manitowoc was Charles Fremont Smalley, who for many years occupied a foremost position in manufacturing circles. It is true that he entered upon a business already established but in controlling and enlarging this—and it grew year by year—he gave proof of the fact that success is not the outcome of genius or fortunate circumstances, as held by some, but the result of sound judgment, unfaltering enterprise and keen discernment. It was the possession of these qualities that made Charles Fremont Smalley honored and respected wherever known and most of all where he was best known. He was born December 19, 1856, on what is known as the old Hiram Smith farm in Sheboygan county, his parents being Edmund Jewett and Fanny (Frick) Smalley. The father was born in Riga, New York, July 6, 1817, and was a son of Daniel and Betsey (Frost) Smalley. The birth of the former occurred in Connecticut, April 3, 1782, and of the latter in Springdale, Massachusetts, June 15, 1791. They were married December 9, 1813, and their family included Edmund Jewett Smalley, who on the 8th of October, 1840, wedded Fanny Frick, after which he came to the west and settled in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, where he conducted a small foundry. In 1857 he removed to Manitowoc and started in business on the present site of the Smalley Manufacturing Company, having there a foundry and blacksmith shop. He was indeed one of the pioneer settlers of this city and it is said that when his patronage was smaller he at one time taught school at Four Corners. He was much interested in the spelling "bees" which were a feature of the schools in those days. As the years passed on, however, his time and attention were necessarilv more and more largely concentrated on his business affairs, which grew in volume and importance. He remained in business continually and was later joined by his five sons, who were associated with him for a number of years. All later sold their interests, however, with the exception of Charles Fremont Smalley, who succeeded his father in the presidency upon the latter's death on the 6th of August,1898. Mrs. Edmund Smalley has also passed away. They were the parents of five sons. Paleman J., a prominent editor of St. Paul, enlisted from Manitowoc county as a soldier in the Civil war. Herschel D., who was also a soldier from Manitowoc county and spent eighteen months in Libby, Andersonville and other prisons, now represents the Smalley Manufacturing Company as traveling salesman in the northwest. Clarence C., who was at one time associated with the firm as an expert machinist and designer of machinery, is deceased. Edmund H. is an attorney of Chicago. The other son, Charles Fremont Smalley, was less than a year old when his parents removed to Manitowoc, so that his education was acquired in the schools of this city and his youthful days were here passed. After his school days were over he became bookkeeper for J. E. Platt, with whom he remained for two years and in the spring of 1874 he went to Buffalo, New York, where he entered the employ of Bennett & Wade, commission merchants. At the urgent request of his father, however, he returned to Manitowoc in 1876 to become actively interested in the Smalley works, which at that time, however, were little known. He then bent every energy toward developing the business, to extending its trade relations and to produce an output that would insure a continued patronage. When the Smalley Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1887 he became its secretary and treasurer and upon the death of his father was elected to the presidency. Under his direction the factory took on new life and it was through his activities that the plant was placed in the front rank of leading manufactories of the state. The company increased the scope of their output to include all kinds of silo fillers, corn snappers, hand feed cutters, alfalfa cutters, root cutters, drag and circular saws, feed mills, ear corn grinders and Champion plows. On the 15th of June, 1880, Mr. Smalley was united in marriage to Miss Carrie Barnes, of Manitowoc. They had three children, of whom Chester Fremont is the only survivor. The death of Charles Fremont Smalley occurred October 21, 1901. On the 26th of December, 1886, he suffered from a stroke of paralysis from which he never fully recovered but during all the years he never made complaint, remaining the same jovial, good natured man. As a citizen his activities extended into many fields and he was especially helpful as a factor in promoting those projects and measures which are most valuable as factors in public progress. He was ever willing to give his aid and his influence to movements for the general good. He was loyal, too, to the teachings and spirit of the Masonic fraternity and the Ancient Order of United Workmen, in both of which he held membership.

CHESTER FREMONT SMALLEY This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.599. The student of history cannot carry his investigations far into the records of Manitowoc without learning of the long and prominent connection of the Smalley family with the industrial development of this section. Chester Fremont Smalley, a representative of the family in the third generation, is secretary and manager of the Smalley Manufacturing Company, an enterprise of large proportions. He was born in Manitowoc, December 25, 1884, pursued his education here and was graduated from the north side high school. He obtained his preliminary business training in Kansas City and returned to Manitowoc in 1909 to become connected with the Smalley Manufacturing Company in the conduct of a business that had been established by his grandfather and enlarged and controller by his father, each remaining with the enterprise until his lifes labors were ended in death. While in Kansas City, Chester F. Smalley was married on the 9th of June, 1909, to Jessie Lucille Gochenour. They have one son, Stanley Fremont, born February 17, 1911.

H. H. SMALLEY From the Manitowoc County Chronicle Two Rivers Wisconsin, June 1875 Among those who graduated from the State University last week were: Miss Hattie E. Bacon and Mr. H.H. Smalley, of this city, the former receiving the degree of Bachelor of Science and the latter that of Bachelor of Law. Miss Bacon read an essay on "determing influence," which was mentioned in the Madison papers in very flattering terms.

SMALLEY MANUFACTURING COMPANY This is a bio. sketch from "History of Manitowoc County Wisconsin", by Dr. L. Falge, 1911-1912, v.2, p.480-483. One of the largest as well as one of the oldest productive industries of this section of the state is that operated under the name of the Smalley Manufacturing Company. Their product consists of a full line of feed cutters and silo fillers. The business was established in 1857 and during the half century and more of its existence has steadily grown until the volume of its output places it among the foremost industries of eastern Wisconsin. Its founder was Edmund Jewett Smalley, who began the manufacture of walking plows. He conducted a foundry and blacksmith shop on the present site of the Smalley Manufacturing Company and enlarged his business from time to time, eventually beginning the manufacture of a "hexel box'— the German term for feed cutter. A windmill furnished the motive power for operating the primitive machinery and later a sweepstake or horse power was used, the speed of the machinery depending upon the disposition of an old white horse named Dan. Later steam power was introduced and the plant has been enlarged to meet the demands of a continually growing trade. The output at the present time includes force feed silo fillers, corn snappers and hand feed cutters, alfalfa cutters, root cutters, drag and circular saws, feed mills and ear corn grinders and Champion plows. There has been an increasing demand for larger cutters and today the company manufactures a cutter with a capacity of thirty—five tons of ensilage per hour where formerly one with a capacity of five tons was sufficient. The machinery is all new and of modern construction, embodying the latest improvements, and no better equipped factory of this kind can be found in the country. Today a hundred workmen are employed throughout the year and the Smalley Manufacturing Company has made the name of Manitowoc known from one end of the country to the other. Its present officers are Mrs. C. F. Smalley, who since the death of her husband in 1901 has been president and actively engaged in the company's development; John L. Smalley, vice—president, who has designed and improved the general construction of machinery for many years and Chester F. Smalley, secretary and manager. The last two represent the third generation connected with the business. The value of this enterprise to Manitowoc cannot be underestimated. Its success has been an element in public prosperity, furnishing employment to a large force of workmen and keeping in circulation a large amount of money. At its head have ever been men of marked enterprise and capability and they have made the name of Smalley not only a synonym for extensive and important operations but also for unassailable honor in the conduct of business affairs. ---------------- From The History of Northern Wisconsin, Vol II. Chicago: Western Historical Pub. Co., 1881, p. 533 E.J. Smalley, of the firm of the Smalley Manufacturing Company, organized July 1, 1881, Manitowoc. Mr. Smalley was born in Monroe Co., N. Y., July 6, 1817; went West in 1847, and began a small factory in Sheboygan, being there, and in that vicinity, ten years; ran his factory seven years during the time, and farmed three years. He sold out, and moved to Manitowoc, and soon began his present business, locating in the latter city in 1857. He was married, in Erie Co., N. Y., in 1840, to Miss Fannie Frick; she was born in the same county, New York, Jan. 17, 1821. They have five sons - P. J. Smalley, married, and living in Caledonia, Minn., is editor and lawyer; H. D. Smalley, married, and living in Manitowoc City, and is mail agent on M., L. Shore & W. R. R.; C. C. Smalley, married, living in Manitowoc, and is superintendent Smalley Manufacturing Company; E. H. Smalley, lawyer, and living in Deadwood City, D. T., and C. F. Smalley, married, and living in Manitowoc, and is secretary and treasurer Smalley Manufacturing Company. Mr. E. J. Smalley, father of the family, is the founder and president of the above works. The stock of the above is owned within the family.
E.J. Smalley