I.    Descriptive …………………………………………………………1
II.   The Indians …………………………………………………………8
III.  Early Settlement …………………………………………16 
IV.   Growth and Foreign Immigration ……32
V.    Means of Communication …………………………42
VI.   Marine ……………………………………………………………………55
VII.  Railroads ……………………………………………………………85 
VIII. Military ……………………………………………………………112   
IX.   Politics ……………………………………………………………133
X.    Village and City Government …………167
XI.   Churches ……………………………………………………………183
XII.  Societies and Organizations …………227
XIII. Education …………………………………………………………243
XIV.  The Press …………………………………………………………255
XV.   The Professions …………………………………………278
XVI.  Banks and Banking  …………………………………281
XVII  Business and Industry …………………………288
      Errata and additions………………………………316
Appendixes ……………………293(A), 294(B), 300(C), 313(D)

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P 112 - CHAPTER VIII. - MILITARY. The American always rejoices in the annals of his military achievements. That the valor of the nation has stood the test of many a conflict is sufficient cause for such a feeling. Such a pride loses nothing of its essence but is in fact enhanced when history is narrowed down and brought home to any community. Thus the part played by Manitowoc county in military affairs of over a half a century is of interest, the more so since all of the actors were known as neighbors and many of them linger still in the form of sad memories in the minds of the older generation. When Wisconsin was organized as a territory the old southern militia system, wherein every able bodied citizen within certain age limits was enrolled, was adopted. Of course in such a newly settled region it was impossible to mobilize the force or to hold any drills but the system existed on paper nevertheless. As early as the later thirties Manitowoc county was assigned as a part of the Second regiment, remaining so for some years. Reorganization took place in 1839 and in 1842 the county regiment system was adopted, whereby each county was made a unit of military organization, Manitowoc being a part of the First Bat., Second Reg., First division. According to the records on February 17, 1842 company E was constituted as follows: --Captain, Pliny Pierce; first lieutenant, Alfred Wood; second lieutenant, P. P. Smith. In 1847 T. A. H. Edwards was made colonel of the Manitowoc county militia, C. H. Champlin, Lieutenant-colonel and A. D. Soper major. Then came the Mexican war, causing a general reorganization in military circles.

P 113 Manitowoc county was too far in the wilderness to take a part in this struggle, although a few of the later settlers, notably S. W. Smith, had served in it. The Wisconsin militia regiments were brigaded at about this time and in 1848 Daniel Bolles was made colonel of the county regiment. Such appointments continued during the fifties, among those holding military commissions being J. M. Sherwood, W. Lozier, S. W. Smith and Temple Clark, the latter becoming particularly prominent as major-general of a district composing Manitowoc, Calumet, Brown and Kewaunee counties, known as the Eight division. Reverend M. Hoyt was division chaplain in the later fifties, Colonel A. Wittman, quartermaster, Dr. White of Two Rivers surgeon and H. C. Hamilton of the same place aide to General Clark. In the first brigade were Manitowoc and Calumet counties under command of Brigadier-General S. W. Smith, F. Borcherdt acting as aide and Dr. A. W. Preston as surgeon. Manitowoc county composed the Thirteenth regiment under Colonel F. Salomon, Lieutenant-Colonel W. Aldrich and Major C. Bates. Under this system, which obtained until 1861, there were about 2,600 enrolled militia in the county. An end was put to this more or less amateur soldiering by the approach of the dark clouds that portended serious civil struggle. The crash came suddenly and in the county as in fact throughout the whole north it was almost sunning in its effect. Busied with plans of material development the settlers along the lake shore had not realized the imminence of war until Sumter was fired upon. But then like thousands of other communities enthusiasm and interest was at a high pitch. Six days after the first gun had been fired the first war meeting was called at Manitowoc in the courthouse. It was convened by President Collins of the village; J. F. Guyles was chosen chairman and E. D. Beardsley and S. W. Smith secretaries. Speeches were made by Temple Clark, Henry Baetz, B. Anderson and Dr. Preston and then the committee on resolutions, consisting of C. C. Barnes, J. D. Markham and Jere Crowley, brought in a report. Some disagreement arose, Mr. Crowley not signing the report favored

P 114 by the other two members, he being at the time a sympathizer with the south. Inflammatory speeches followed by C. C. Barnes and W. M. Nichols but Mr. Crowley, when called upon, refused to express his opinions, introducing instead a Mr. Wright of New York, who happened to be in the village. The latter was a strong Secessionist and made bold to say that he would fly the Palmetto flag from his sailboat, which was in the harbor, but the crowd would have none of him and he was hissed to his seat. Resolutions were then offered by P. P. Smith favoring Lincoln and recommending the raising of a company. These were passed after a wordy battle and volunteers were called for. The meeting was one of the largest ever held in the village. Similar gatherings were held in Two Rivers and interest was high there also, it being stated on April 24th that "the volunteers from Two Rivers will more than fill a company." Two days before forty men had enlisted at Manitowoc and this number was increased by fourteen the next day. Judge Thayer of the circuit court was at the time holding a term at Manitowoc and in his charge to the grand jury referred feelingly to the stirring times. On the evening of the 22nd another rousing meeting was held, a procession being formed to escort Judge Thayer to the courthouse, where he addressed the citizens. J. F. Guyles acted as chairman and S. W. Smith and Otto Troemmel as secretaries while among the speakers were Reverend Engle, J. A. Bentley, J. D. Markham, C. C. Barnes, Temple Clark, C. C. Esslinger and A. Wittmann. The company then mobilizing was soon denominated the Manitowoc County Guards and on April 26th it elected officers as follows: - Captain, Temple Clark; first lieutenant, Horace Walker; second lieutenant, Peter Scherflus, after which Banker M. V. Adams made a patriotic speech. Three Mishicot young men, Lafayette Smith, James W. Langworthy and Horace Price, together with D. A. Shove and G. E. Waldo of Manitowoc, did not await the calling out of the Manitowoc Guards and accordingly went to Milwaukee and joined the First Regiment, being the first from the county to enlist and see active service.

P 115 All through the county by this time the people were aroused. At Branch Mills a flag raising afforded the occasion of expressing enthusiasm and a similar occurrence took place at the Second ward school in the village of Manitowoc. In the meanwhile interest centered in Captain Clark's company, the support given to it being unanimous. A private subscription was raised amounting to $1800 to form a soldiers' fund as a further inducement to enlistment. In the list were $100 gifts from C. C. Barnes, W. Goodenow, Plate & Vilas, J. Lueps and B. Jones & Co. and $50 donations from T. C. Shove, W. Murphy, T. & J. Robinson, M. Fellows, J. Bennett, Collins & Co., Louis Sherman, J. A. Koehler, T. Windiate, S. Hill, J. Richards, McDonald & Bros., Beer & Kern, C. Esslinger, J. S. Guyles, A. Wittman, J. D. Markham, T. G. Olmstead, H. Berner, J. Roeffs, E. Haywood, W. Hand, G. Glover, H. Baetz, W. H. Nichols, R. Klingholz and O. Torrison. Said the Weekly Herald: "If every man in the company wants the Herald for his parents, wife or sweetheart while he is fighting he shall have it." On May 1st 1861 Captain Temple Clark issued the following proclamation to citizens: "The company of volunteers from this county has been accepted by the governor and the officers commissioned. The company by the governor and the officers commissioned. The company will be clothed and equipped at the expense of the state as soon as they are assigned to a regiment and ordered to rendezvous; in the meantime they will be kept under constant drill and such of them as do not belong in the village will be boarded at the expense of the state. One of the most necessary articles for the equipment of the soldier is the blanket. The enormous demand for these renders it impossible for the state to procure them in sufficient quantities to furnish all the volunteers in the state unless aided by private contributions of this article and we are obliged to make a call upon all our patriotic citizens to contribute from their private stores as many blankets as they can spare towards supplying this necessary want of our company. Respectfully Yours, Temple Clark." The result was the formation among the ladies of the village of societies for the preparation of necessaries for the

P 116 soldiers. The Guards in the meantime were fearful lest the war might be brought to a sudden termination and thus they be deprived of an opportunity to show their valor. At last after several weeks of weary waiting Captain Clark received orders on May 21st to fill his company to a full quota of 100 men and to be ready to march upon a moment's notice. Six days later a third mass meeting was held and stirring addresses made, patriotism being foremost in all minds. Still no word came for the company to move. On June 12th Colonel Emery arrived and mustered the company into the state service. During the same week a beautiful ceremony took place in the presentation of a flag to the company made by the ladies of the village, the presentation address being made by Mrs. Collins and the captain replying in a few feeling words. The flag was captured at Cold Harbor but was later retaken and after an exhibition at the Centennial was placed in the Capitol at Madison. Then came the command to mobilize at Madison and on Sunday evening, June 23rd, 1861, The Manitowoc County Guards embarked on the Goodrich liner Comet and were carried southward. The largest crowd ever assembled in the village was present at the pier and the scenes enacted were of a nature never to be forgotten as partings were said, in many instances for the last time. Upon arrival at Camp Randall in Madison drilling was the order of the day and on July 13 the men were mustered into the United States service as Company A, Fifth Wisconsin infantry. Said the Madison Journal of the company: "They are strong, hardy men from the lumbering districts, who have been well drilled in machinery but have not been exercised in the manual of arms." This paper also described graphically the surroundings of the company's quarters. White pebbles had been utilized to make inscriptions giving the name of the organization and in front of the captain's tent were the words: "Captain Clark, God Bless Him," while three flags floated above this portion of the camp. The record of the Fifth during the war was a noble one. After the battle of Bull Run the regiment with others was hurried to the front and the first engagement in

P 117 which it participated was that at Lee's Mills, Va., on April 16, 1862. Captain Clark was transferred in a short time, being promoted for bravery at Corinth and occupying a position on the staff of General Rosecrans. Thus the command early devolved upon Captain Walker, who through the troublous Virginia campaigns under McClellan, McDowell, Burnsides and Meade, led his men until at Rappahannock on November 7, 1863 he was struck down by a bullet. The company, however, continued its career until July 1864 when it was mustered out, its three years of service being at an end. Many of the members re-enlisted in other regiments while the remainder returned home. During its service twenty-three men on the muster roll were killed outright, ten were reported missing and twenty-seven were seriously wounded. Thus it happened that out of the 106 men that left Manitowoc on that June evening only 36 returned. Among these names later well known were those of J. S. Anderson, W. Rickaby, F. Stirn, J. Mill, J. Gilbert, D. Buboltz, F. W. Borcherdt, J. L. Cox, J. Enert, A. B. Gibson, J. R. Leykom, G. B. Engle and J. H. Leonard. The first company sent to the war had not left the village before it became evident that the struggle was to be a long one and that the nation's resources would be taxed to the utmost. In the early part of May the German residents of the village organized the "Home Guards," Frederick Becker being chosen captain and Colonel Baetz assisting in the recruiting. It was soon announced that the Guards were to form a part of the Ninth Wisconsin. This was not, however, the only organization for which recruiting was in progress during the fall of 1861. In August F. Borcherdt was authorized to raise a company but did not succeed and another attempt was made a month later by Jere Crowley to get together an Irish company, the Meagher Guards, which was similarly unsuccessful. D. A. Shove and G. E. Waldo in the meantime had returned from their three months service with the First Wisconsin and plunged actively into the work of enlisting a company for the Fourteenth and soon Colonel K. K. Jones commenced similar efforts among the Norwegian

P 118 residents of the county, intending to make his command a part of the Fifteenth Wisconsin which was being raised exclusively among those of that nationality. Other agencies were active also. The county board assembled and appropriated $1,500 for the relief of indigent soldiers' families while in Two Rivers the Ladies Relief Association was formed, the officers being:--President, Mrs. Van Valkenburgh; vice president, Mrs. Joseph Mann; treasurer, Mrs. J. Burns and secretary, Mrs. Alanson Hill. Kindred organizations were formed at Manitowoc and Cato. Captain Becker's company left the city on October 2nd for Milwaukee and Manitowoc was honored in the choice of one of its citizens, Frederick Salomon, as colonel of the regiment, the Ninth, of which the company was a part, it becoming Co. B. Colonel, afterward General Solomon rose higher perhaps than any other Manitowoc man and the village always delighted to honor him. On the day before his departure he was presented by the German citizens with a beautiful charger which he used throughout the war. There were many men outside of Co. B from Manitowoc county in the Ninth; several from the town of Schleswig were in Co. A while Co. K was made up entirely from men from that and surrounding townships under the command of Captain H. F. Belitz and in Co. I there were several soldiers from the towns of Newton and Manitowoc. The regiment was mustered into service at Camp Sigel at Milwaukee October 18th and left for the west the succeeding January, being a part of the Army of the Frontier, serving in Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska until mustered out in January 1866. During the first year the officers of Co. B were:--Captain, Frederick Becker; first lieutenant, A. F. Dumke and second lieutenant, Gerbert Guetzloe, of Newton. In May 1862 Captain Becker resigned and returned home to engage in business, thus causing changes among his subordinates, Hugo Koch becoming second lieutenant. Captain Belitz resigned his command at about the same time while several months later C. H. Schmidt became a captain of Co. I of the same regiment. The men in this organization although not in many battles saw much hard ser-

P 119 vice, such as scouting, guarding trains, etc. After their gallant colonel had been promoted to a generalship in September 1863 he visited his old home and was given an ovation by his townsmen, a public meeting being called at which many complimentary addresses were made. About twenty-five of the Ninth returned to Manitowoc in December 1864 upon the expiration of their service but many re-enlisted for the two succeeding years. Later in 1861 two more companies left Manitowoc. The part played by the men from the county in the fourteenth regiment was a large one. It was Company E of this organization that was commanded by George E. Waldo and D. E. Shove, who were made captain and first lieutenant respectively, while Daniel Ramsdell was commissioned as second lieutenant. The regiment gathered at Camp Hamilton, Fond du Lac, under Colonel Wood and was mustered in January 30, 1862, leaving for St. Louis three months later. There were a few men from Manitowoc in Co. F also, James La Counte acting as first lieutenant for the first two years of the service. The regiment after reaching the south was soon plunged into the baptism of fire. At one of the first battles in which it participated, that at Shiloh, the gallant Captain Waldo was struck down, being brought home a corpse. He was a young man of great popularity, a testimonial of which had been presented to him in the shape of a sward before he left the village, and the feeling of loss occasioned by his death was a personal one to every resident. Joseph Smith succeeded him as captain of Co. E and remained such until the end of the war. In the same year B. F. Goodenow became first lieutenant, while among the Manitowoc men to occupy offices in the regiment were W. F. Eldridge, sergeant-major; John M. Read, sergeant-major and adjutant-major, Rev. G. B. Engle of St. James, who in 1864 became chaplain and R. S. E. Zeilley, who was the surgeon of the regiment. The regiment saw several years of hard service, fighting at Vicksburg, Champion Hills and in many other battles. Their service expired in January 1864 but a majority, after enjoying a furlough, re-enlisted. The men in company E returned home in October,

P 120 1865 and their duties done, were soon engaged in their various occupations. The Fourteenth formed a regimental association in 1880 and has held frequent reunions. The other company to leave in 1861 was Co. F of the fifteenth Wisconsin, known as the Norwegian regiment. The men took their departure for the rendezvous at Madison on the 10th of December, and K. K. Jones was given a commission as lieutenant colonel of the regiment, Hans Heg being the colonel. An interesting fact in this regard was that colonel Jones during the war carried the sward that his father, William Jones, one of the promoters of the Manitowoc Land company in 1835, carried in the war of 1812. Company F was wholly from Manitowoc county, being commanded by Captain Charles Gustaveson of the town of Rapids, a former soldier in the Norwegian army, while the second lieutenant was also a Manitowoc county man, Svend Samuelson of Eaton. The regiment was mustered in at Camp Randall on Feb. 14, 1862 and a month later was transferred to St. Louis. It served faithfully for three years, being engaged at Stone River, in the various battles before Atlanta and remaining in Tennessee until December 1864, when the men were mustered out. A few soldiers from the county went into the Sixteenth regiment and fully half a company in the Nineteenth was also made up of Manitowoc men, W. W. Bates, the shipbuilder, being captain of Co. K, serving ably throughout the Atlanta campaign. The next full company to be sent forth was Co. K of the Twenty-First Wisconsin, the recruiting for it commencing in the spring of 1862, with headquarters at C. H. Walker's office. By this time it was seen that there were serious difficulties in the way of subduing the foe and volunteers were not as numerous as in the earlier days of the war. A draft was rumored as the summer dragged on and Manitowoc county's quota was fixed at 839 under the call of President Lincoln issued in August. The draft was then definitely ordered and on August 15th and 19th meetings were held to secure volunteers in order that the quota might be met without resorting to such severe measures. Speeches were made by Colonel

P 121 Sweet of the newly authorized Twenty-First, P. P. Smith, Judge Taylor and G. N. Woodin. Enthusiasm was high and J. E. Platt offered $50 and forty acres of land to the first recruit. Michael McGuire, a clerk, secured the prize but relinquished it to a second, who in turn gave it to a third. Thus the company was filled with sturdy young men, leaving seven days later on the steamer Comet. In the meantime the draft had been postponed although Joseph Vilas had been chosen commissioner of the county to supervise the drawing while Dr. A. Schenke was appointed examining surgeon. Company K was officered as follows:-- Captain, C. H. Walker; first lieutenant, Wyman Murphy; second lieutenant, Joseph La Counte and it was mustered in at Oshkosh on Sept. 5, 1862. Five days later, under command of Colonel Sweet, the regiment left for the south and within a month it had participated in its first battle, that of Perryville. Here Colonel Sweet was wounded and Colonel Harrison C. Hobart succeeded him. After Perryville the regiment went south and participated in the Atlanta campaign, in the march to the sea and in further arduous service, being mustered out on June 17, 1865. Among the officers which the county furnished the regiment were Quartermasters H. C. Hamilton and B. J. Van Valkenburgh, Quartermaster-Sergeant G. T. Burns and Lieut. F. W. Borcherdt of Company D. Mr. Hamilton died of typhoid fever in April 1863 and his body was brought home to Two Rivers and buried with military honors. He was thirty-six years old and had always been prominent in the village of his abode, having served in the county board, the assembly and as first president of the village. Captain Walker was promoted to the position of major in 1864 and was succeeded as captain by Lieut. La Counte. The Twenty-First regiment, organized as an association in 1868, being one of the first to do so but no regular reunions were held until beginning with 1887. Among the officers of the association hailing from Manitowoc have been J. F. Reardon and F. C. Ostenfeldt and in June 1896 the reunion was held in the city, a program of much interest being carried out. During the summer of 1862 Messrs. Pizzala and Baetz

P 122 were also busy recruiting at Manitowoc for the Twenty-Sixth, otherwise known as the Sigel Regiment, headquarters being stationed a Klingholz Hall. Company F was raised in the county and was officered as follows:--Captain, Henry Baetz; first lieutenant, Charles Pizzala; second lieutenant, A. Waller, of Milwaukee. Captain Baetz was later promoted to the position of major and after a period of faithful service the second commander, Capt. Pizzala was killed in May 1863. The regiment was mustered in at Milwaukee in September 1862 and saw much service, fighting at Gettysburg, Mission Ridge, Resaca, Atlanta and participating in the march to the sea. It was mustered out in June 1865. Among the other Manitowoc men serving as officers of this organization were W. H. Hempschemeyer, who became captain of Co. I, and Lieutenant N. Wollmer, who was killed before Atlanta, his burial occurring at Manitowoc on August 30, 1864. The funeral was a military one since many soldiers were home on a furlough, including General Salomon, colonel Olmstead, Major Baetz, Captains Goodwin, Rankin and Dumke and Lieutenants Murphy, Wimpf and Markham, all of whom acted as an escort. Mr. Wollmer was an early settler and was engaged in the banking business before the war. Recruiting went on for the Twenty-Seventh as well as for the Twenty-Sixth in the summer of 1862. Manitowoc county responded nobly, furnishing all of the members of Co. K and half of Co. D. The recruiting was under the supervision of T. G. Olmstead, who became lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, Joseph Rankin, who was commissioned captain of Co. D and Peter Mulholland, who later became captain of Co. K but who at first was a first lieutenant in the other company. The men left the village on Sept. 18, 1862, Captain Rankin being presented with a sward by his fellow citizens on the occasion of the departure. The regiment was mustered in at Camp Sigel in March of the next year and under colonel Krez participated in the Vicksburg campaign, later being active in Arkansas and finally being mustered out in September 1865, the survivors arriving in Manitowoc on the 28th of that month. Among the men from the county who served as

P 123 officers in this regiment were Surgeons Saltzmann and Hutchinson, Lieutenants T. McMillan, N. Hanson and M. McGuire. During 1864 considerable recruiting was done for the Twenty-Seventh in the county and on October 27th of that year a number of new men were sent to the front to join that organization. The Thirty-Second Wisconsin was organized at about the same time as the last mentioned regiment, being mustered in on September 25, 1862. It drew about one-half of one company, G, from Manitowoc, among the officers being Lieuts. Oscar B. Smith and H. H. Markham. The regiment saw hard service with General Sherman around Atlanta and then remained in Mississippi until mustered out in June 1864. This was the last regular organization to which the county made contribution of her sons for some months. The first draft, as was said before, had been postponed owing to inaccuracies and general unpreparedness. The return as made by Commissioner Vilas in September 1862 was as follows: Town Enrolled Exempt Subject to Draft Franklin 160 108 52 Two Creeks 36 8 28 Rapids 200 77 120 Manitowoc 526 298 228 Meeme 167 34 133 Schleswig 147 6 141 Centerville 167 24 143 Newton 218 92 126 Maple Grove 113 46 67 Two Rivers 351 132 219 Kossuth 250 86 164 Mishicott 187 30 157 Cooperstown 195 55 140 Rockland 88 20 68 Cato 158 46 112 Gibson 160 21 139 Liberty 214 72 142 Eaton 131 14 117 ____ _____ ____ Totals 3471 1169 2302 Total to be drafted 397.

P 124 The town of Manitowoc had filled its quota so it became unnecessary to consider that in the estimates. A volunteer fund of $1613 had been raised early in the year and this was used to by the services of substitutes. After a final examination held in December on January 2, 1863 the draft was carried out at the Court House under the direction of Capt. Weischner, U. S. A. The result was not satisfactory as many drawn were exempt and only about one hundred and twenty recruits were in reality secured and of these many failed to report. One hundred of the men drafted resolved to test the legality of the action, it being doubted by lawyers of ability, and Attorneys Nichols, Pierpont, Reed, Woodin and Bach were retained by them. These gentlemen secured the able assistance of E. G. Ryan, later chief justice and the case came before the supreme court in the January term under habeas corpus proceedings, the claim being made that the draft was void as outside any legal authority. The court, however, sustained the United States and decided the draft to be proper. The case is know as In Re Greiner and is found in the 16th Wisconsin at page 423. Hardly had the excitement aroused by the first draft passed away when a second one was ordered. Citizens of Manitowoc met on July 21st and formed a draft club, of which Joseph Vilas was chosen president and treasurer and H. F. Hubbard secretary. Each member paid in fifty dollars, and received $300 if drafted, with which he might purchase a substitute, if he so desired. This second draft took place at Green Bay on November 23rd and was attended by the Manitowoc County Board. The county's quota was 388 men, not all of which was raised however, although under J. F. Guyles, who had been chosen provost marshal of the county, an efficient police system was organized. This having passed, another draft was announced to take place at Green Bay on Jan. 25th. At its December session the county board by resolution instructed J. Pellet, J. Carey and A. Wittmann to represent Manitowoc interests at the proceeding and these gentlemen accordingly attended. The quota of the county at this draft was 232 men, which also was not even approximately

P 125 reached. In the meantime the practice of raising bounty funds increased. The town of Manitowoc voted $100 per recruit on Feb. 1, 1864, while at about the same time Two Rivers raised $5000 for the same purpose, Mishicott $3000, while Manitowoc Rapids offered $125 and Cato $100 per recruit. These grants were later legalized by the state legislature. In August 1864 the quota for the next draft, which was announced for the next month, was published as follows:--Two Creeks 13, Cooperstown 53, Maple Grove 34, Kossuth 60, Mishicot 34, Gibson 38, Franklin 36, Two Rivers 54, Manitowoc 61, Rockland 16, Centerville 33, Meeme 39, Schleswig 12, Eaton 32, Newton 34, Cato 25, Liberty 48 and Rapids 45. Excitement was intense and at an election held in Manitowoc on the 26th a proposition to vote a village bounty of $200 per recruit was defeated by 93 majority. Superhuman efforts were made, however, both there and at Two Rivers so that before the 28th of September, the date of the draft, the quotas of these towns were filled. In the former place this result was accomplished largely by a second draft club, which was formed with G. N. Woodin as president and A. Wittmann as secretary, each member being required to pay in twenty dollars. In the rest of the county the draft bore most heavily, there being no means of obviating its hardships. Feeling ran so high in Two Creeks that a recruiting officer barely escaped being mobbed. The draft took place at Green Bay as usual and there were present A. Wittmann and the county board. The drawing did not fill the quota and a supplementary draft took place on December 22nd for all towns except Manitowoc, Two Rivers and Centerville, which had furnished the required number. By this time the list of those not exempt had been exhausted in Eaton and Franklin and the same condition was rapidly approaching in the other towns, only two or three dozen eligible men remaining in each. Then followed the announcement of what proved to be the final draft. The town of Manitowoc upon hearing the news voted at a special election held January 2, 1865 the sum of $12,000 as bounty money, paying $300 per recruit, one of the largest local bounties in the state. The bounty club was also

P 126 reorganized. In February a mass meeting was held to raise still more money and Joseph Vilas, J. D. Markham, T. C. Shove, S. A. Wood and E. K. Rand succeeded in doing so, earning the gratitude of their fellow citizens. The first named was presented with a valuable tobacco box by his admirers after the war closed in appreciation of the services rendered during these troublous times. The quota for the last draft was finally announced as follows:--Manitowoc 59, Rapids 35, Meeme 11, Cato 20, Rockland 15, Centerville 25, Liberty 24, Newton 10, Schleswig 12, Two Creeks 4, Mishicot 8, Gibson 28, Cooperstown 37, Maple Grove 10, Kossuth 6 and Two Rivers 54, that of Franklin and Eaton having already been exhausted. The war, however, came to a close before it was necessary to rendezvous those drawn in April 1865. Captain F. Borcherdt, then marshal of the county, received orders to arrest no more deserters. During the last two years of the war there were organized several companies in the county that took the field for their country. In 1864 recruiting went on actively for the Forty-Fifth regiment of which in October Henry F. Belitz of Kiel was chosen colonel. Company B came largely from the towns of Centerville and Newton, being commanded by Capt. Jacob Leiser, while many were in Co. D also. Among the other Manitowoc county men acting as officers in the regiment were Captains C. H. Schmidt of Co. E, Reinhard Schlichting of Co. A, Bernard Schlichting of Co. C and Lieuts. C. Kerten of Co. C, Charles White of Co. D and Peter Ruppenthal of Co. A. The regiment was sent to Nashville in the fall and was disbanded in July 1865. In February of that latter year the Forty-Eight regiment rendezvoused at Milwaukee, in it being Co. D, Captain A. Wittmann, containing men from Two Rivers and other parts of the county. The regiment was dispatched to Kansas and served in garrison and scout duties until February 1866, when it was mustered out. A few recruits from the county were also enlisted in the Fifty-Second regiment, Captain S. W. Smith commanding Co. D. This regiment got as far as St. Louis but was there returned and soon after disbanded.

P 127 Thus was the bloody struggle brought to a close. Manitowoc county had furnished nine full companies and parts of three others, about twelve hundred men in all besides those who enlisted independently in various organizations or as engineers, cavalrymen or artillerymen. All through 1865 and even in the spring of the next year the blue-coated veterans came straggling home and warm was their welcome. A festival had taken place in the Windiate House in February 1864 in honor of the return of the three year men and similar functions followed in 1865, among them a grand reunion given by the Ladies Soldiers' Aid society held in February, one half of the proceeds of which went for the support of indigent soldiers' families and the other half to the State Soldiers' Home. A similar affair was held at Two Rivers a month or so later, five hundred dollars being realized. In fact the work of the women, who strove to be of service at home, was as heroic as that of the men in the field. During the war twenty-two large boxes of supplies were forwarded by the Manitowoc Ladies society and five by the organization in Two Rivers. Then came the sad and sudden death of Lincoln. Meetings of the returned soldiery were held immediately for the arrangement of a fitting commemoration of his life and on April 29th one of the most imposing ceremonies that the village ever witnessed took place. A procession one mile long was formed in the following order, marching through the main streets;--I. Manitowoc Brass band; II. Committees; III. Company of returned soldiers under Captain Goodwin; IV. Hearse and Urn; V. Village officials; VI. Masons; VII. Odd Fellows; VIII. Sons of Herman; IX. Good Templars; X. Torrent Engine Company, No. 1, Hook and Ladder Company, Bucket Co.; XI. School children and ladies. At Union Park Reverend Smith delivered a funeral oration and the assemblage then broke up. Thus did Manitowoc honor the memory of the immortal president. Soon after the draft club made its final report, the total receipts since its formation having been $16,558, of which a balance of $2038 remained in the treasury. It was first proposed to put this money in the harbor fund but

P 128 it was later decided to divide it pro rata among the membership. Naturally the returned soldiers kept up the associations that had so long held them together, the result being the formation in Manitowoc of a post in July 1868. C. H. Walker was chosen commander, W. I. Gilbert senior vice commander, John M. Read post adjutant and A. J. Patchen quartermaster. This organization, however, dissolved in the course of time and it was not until April 22, 1881, that Horace M. Walker Post No. 18 of the Wisconsin G. A. R. was formed. Since that time it has led an active existence with a large membership and good equipment. Among the post commanders have been J. S. Anderson, E. R. Smith, Frank Stirn, Richard McGuire, F. Ostenfeldt, H. Hentscher, C. E. Spindler, J. F. Reardon, H. Schmidt and J. D. Schuette. Gen. Lytle Post No. 190 was formed at Kiel on Dec. 27, 1884 and Joseph Rankin Post No. 129 at Two Rivers June 16, 1886. The commanders of the former have been P. Mattes, F. Krieger, P. Jergenheimer, L. Gutheil, C. Beck and C. Peschke; those of the latter W. F. Nash, W. Henry, W. Wagner and Louis Hartung. Several local members have held important positions in the state organization. Naturally military affairs after the war were given little attention for some time. In the summer of 1868, however, the Manitowoc Volunteer Militia company was formed with over sixty members. On August 9th Frederick Becker was chosen captain, W. H. Hempschemeyer first lieutenant and Henry Schweitzer second lieutenant. It was made part of the state militia as Company A Second regiment, remaining so designated until 1894, when it became an independent organization. The twenty- fifth anniversary of the company was celebrated with great festivities on July 10, 1893, speeches and parades making up the program. The captains of the company from its formation were F. Becker, A. C. Becker, Emil Schmidt and Henry Schweitzer. Reorganization took place in the nineties and many of the company went into the new Rahr Guards, of which Captain Joseph Willinger has been for some time the commander. An independent company was formed in the seventies among the Polish residents of North-

P 129 eim, being known as the Pulaski Guards, that formed a brilliant feature on several public occasions, but they disbanded after a short existence. On December 29, 1881 a new company was organized at Manitowoc under the name of the Rankin Guards. The first officers were:--Captain W. H. Hempschemeyer, first lieutenant, Ole Benson; second lieutenant, Emil Baensch. The company soon became incorporated into the state militia as Company H, Second regiment, and the rivalry between the two organizations in the city was a healthy one. An event of interest was the encampment at the county Fair Grounds in August 1886 of the members of the Second Regiment, ten companies being present. Captain Hempschemeyer was succeeded in command of Company H by Emil Baensch, he by William Kunz and he by William F. Brandt. In the nineties William Abel was chosen captain and remained such during the Spanish-American war. That struggle, suddenly thrust upon the nation for the sake of humanity, called forth a burst of patriotism among young and old. Manitowoc was not behind other communities in this respect and the company of soldiers already in existence in the city was recruited and frequently drilled as the war clouds grew thicker. Finally late in April came the orders to mobilize the state troops at Camp Harvey, Milwaukee, and on the 28th Company H left the city amidst demonstrations of patriotism almost unprecedented. Mustered in at Milwaukee, one hundred and nine strong on May 5th the troops were transported to Chickamauga Park, where they remained a month, later being transferred to Charleston, S. C. Here Captain Abel became seriously ill and command devolved largely upon Lieuts. Knudson and Stahl. The company, embarking on the transport Grand Duchess, arrived in Ponce, Porto Rico July 28 and spent a month and a half in arduous service on that isle. Peace, however, was soon at hand and the Manitowoc guardsmen were with the remainder of the regiment returned, to the United States, reaching Milwaukee September 17th. The next morning they were the recipients of an ovation on the part of their fellow citizens, being tendered a banquet at the Turner Hall and participating in a

P 130 a lengthy parade. All but four of the company returned, Herbert Coville, F. C. Schwalbe, F. Engel and William Hein giving up their lives for their country. The progress of the war was watched with great interest by the residents of the county and its happy termination hailed with joy. Many young men from the county served in various organizations aside from Company H throughout the struggle and later several were with the troops in the Philippines, fighting the insurgents. The Spanish-American War veterans formed Camp Henry W. Lawton on Feb. 10, 1900, with a membership of forty, the officers being:--commander, Ernst Heide; vice commanders, M. Jergenson and C. Richards; adjutant, J. C. Jirikowic; quartermaster, Wm. Abel; chaplain, H. V. Berndt; officer of the day, H. Woerfel; officer of the guard, C. Schumacher. The first reunion of the camps of the northeastern part of the state occurred at Manitowoc in July of the following year. In the spring of 1900 a military company, the Twin City Rifles, was organized at Two Rivers, making its first public appearance on Memorial day. Linked inseparably with military heroism is patriotism and it is well that certain days such as the Fourth of July and Memorial day have been set aside for the proper commemoration of the past. These have been observed regularly in the county, the Fourth particularly, from the earliest days. The manner in which that holiday has been celebrated as the years have passed is most interesting. In antebellum days speeches, banquets, balls and parades were the order of the hour. The feature of the Fourth in 1854 was an excursion to Two Rivers, while two years later a grand celebration was held at Clarks Mills, Judge Lee delivering an address. The program in 1859 was the first elaborate one given in the county. It opened with a federal salute and at noon a procession was formed which, marshaled by W. H. McDonald, I. P. Smith, G. S. Glover, J. P. Barnes and A. L. Pierce, moved to Union Park. In line were the fire companies, the agricultural societies, school children and citizens and when the park was reached a bounteous banquet was spread by the ladies of the Social Circle. The toasts re-

P 131 sponded to were varied and instructive, being as follows:-- "Ladies of Manitowoc," "The Day We Celebrate," "The teachers of Our Village." "Our National Anniversary," "Italy," "Ladies Social Circle," "Manitowoc and Mississippi Railroad," "The press and the Union" and "Written on a Shingle- Manitowoc Currency, May it Never Fail." Celebrations were usually held at Union Park during this early period, although later Washington Park was the scene of festivities. In 1861 on account of the war feeling was high and at a celebration at Cato an aged resident was hissed from the platform for supposed Secession utterances. Because of the close of the war an outburst of enthusiasm took place on the Fourth in 1865 and Manitowoc was no exception to the rule. The county board appropriated $300 and with this sum a banquet was tendered the returned veterans. The feast was held at the National Hotel and was presided over by Joseph Vilas, toasts being responded to as follows: "The President," C. E. Esslinger; "Memory of Lincoln," J. D. Markham; "Officers and Soldiers," C. H. Walker; "The Day We Celebrate," H. Sibree; "The County Board," Jason Pellett; "Memory of the Fallen." G. N. Woodin; "The Pres," C. H. Schmidt; "The clergy, Rev. L. N. Freeman and "The Bar," E. B. Treat. At Two Rivers a magnificent liberty pole was raised and a lengthy parade formed, after which Rev. Herman Bartels delivered an oration. In the years succeeding parades were an annual feature and among the orators were Rev. W. J. Stoutenburgh, J. B. Sherwood, B. R. Anderson, C. E. Esslinger, A. Wittmann and R. D. Smart. In 1872 the new railway was utilized and an excursion to Kaukauna successfully enjoyed. Then came the elaborate celebration of the Centennial Fourth. A monster parade in three divisions was the feature of the day, John Bibinger, G. F. Barker and P. J. Pierce acting as marshals. In line were two veterans of the War of 1812, B. Jones and F. C. Kapple, the Pulaski Guards of Northeim, numerous symbolic floats, fraternal organizations and the fire departments. Exercises were held in Union Park, C. Esslinger acting as orator of the day and Reverend C. B. Stevens as

P 132 chaplain. In the evening a public display of fireworks witnessed by hundreds crowned the glorious day. Two Rivers also commemorated the occasion fittingly. During the succeeding few years the celebrations were very quiet and each community in the county held its own instead of centralizing at the county seat. In 1883 the celebration at Manitowoc assumed considerable magnitude and again in 1891, in the later year the city entertaining many visitors from neighboring towns, a magnificent parade and $1300 display of fireworks being features. Exercises were held in Washington park and Judge Emil Baensch delivered the oration. Since that year, however, no great effort has been made to celebrate the day in a public manner. Memorial day has also, since its institution, been observed with proper ceremonies in the county. In Manitowoc after 1883 the practice arose of securing outside orators of repute to address the citizens and among the number who have done so have been General F. C. Winckler, Colonel Watrous, Senator Spooner, Senator Quarles, Congressman Esch, Eugene S. Elliot, President S. Plantz of Lawrence University, Reverend Walter E. Cole, Reverend G. W. Ide and Reverend Fraser. Along the line of patriotic movements should be noticed the imposing statue placed in 1900 in the public square at Two Rivers in honor of the soldier dead.