by Arthur Lohman written 1909

               Chapter I - A PIONEER'S STORY

  Now that the old settlers are rapidly passing away, the events that 
occurred in the earlier history of this city will soon be forgotten 
unless some steps are taken to preserve some of the more important 
events that transpired years ago.
  What was it that caused these pioneers of the early days to leave the 
more civilized centers of the east, and the older civilization of the old 
world, to come to this western country, - and unbroken wilderness - where 
nature still reigned supreme, and the wandering Indians were the only 
inhabitants? What inducement in particular did this community hold forth? 
Why did the early settlers come to Two Rivers? This is what particularly 
interests the descendants of these early settlers or the student in his 
  In order to get at some of these facts, and the early history of Two 
Rivers, the writer approached Mr. George Hallauer, of this city, who 
probably enjoys the distinction of being at the present time one of the 
oldest and earliest settlers of this city. Mr. Hallauer - although in his 
84th year - bears his years well, is still hale and hearty, and his 
recollections of events closely associated with the early history of Two
Rivers, are vivid and interesting. In speaking of the events of his life, 
he began by saying that he was born in Baden, Germany, March 10, 1824, and 
grew to manhood there. In 1848 he enlisted his services in behalf of the 
revolutionists in that county under Franz Siegel (who later distinguished 
himself in our Civil War). The defeat of the revolutionists made it necessary 
for those having taken part in it to flee, or take the consequences. He, 
therefore, decided to leave his native land at once, and hastily gathering up 
such belongings as he could readily carry, together with $200.00 in cash, 
started for the port of Antwerp, in July, 1848, where he embarked for New 
York on the sailing vessel, Clothilda, the fare being $100.00 without meals. 
Each passenger, of whom there were 250 on board, mostly immigrants, were
obliged to take along enough provisions to last during the voyage, as well
as the necessary cooking utensils, and bedding.
  A few days after leaving Antwerp a terrific storm was encountered, and
for a time the ship appeared to be unable to weather it. The masts were
broken off during the gale, and the passengers were obliged to man the pumps,
and assist the sailors. Fortunately assistance came in time, and they were
towed to Plymouth, England. After waiting five weeks for repairs, they
proceeded to New York, where they landed after an interval of 105 days since
leaving Antwerp. Allowing for the five weeks, or 35 days spent in Plymouth,
the ocean voyage required 70 days, or over two months. Part of the time he
says they were on short rations owing to the length of the voyage.
  On arriving at New York, he, with a friend by the name of John Leabinger,
met an old friend of Leabinger's by the name of Charles Eigeldinger, who
told them to go West. He told them of a brother of his who had settled on
a farm near Two Rivers, and who had written him that the country was ideal,
land good and cheap - the price being $1.25 an acre. Mr. Hallauer and his
friend, Mr. Leabinger, having no relatives in America, no definite location
in mind, and no means except $100.00 in funds between them, decided to take
Mr. Eigeldinger's advice and come to Two Rivers, Wisconsin, as they thought
they could no doubt secure employment of some kind and later purchase a farm.
Therefore in the forepart of December, 1848, they left New York for Albany
by boat on the Hudson River, thence by train to Buffalo, and steamboat to
Milwaukee. After tarrying in Milwaukee four or five days - which was then
a comparatively small place - they started for Two Rivers on foot, as there
was no train or boat line running up here. Lake navigation had closed for
the season. From Milwaukee to Port Washington a corduroy road had been
constructed through dense woods, mostly hardwoods. The first day they only
traveled about 12 or 15 miles, and stayed over night with a fisherman who
had a small shanty near the lake. Arriving at Port Washington the next day
they were obliged to follow the beach, as there was no trail or road to
take. They reached Sheboygan that night, where there was then a small
settlement. The following day they arrived at Manitowoc, and stopped with
a party by the name of George Dusold.
  The trip from Milwaukee to Manitowoc was uneventful, he says, except that
all streams had to be crossed either by swimming or wading, and as the 
month of December was well advanced the water was rather chilly. No Indians
were met on the way, although several tribes were still living in this
  The following day he and his friend made their way to Two Rivers, and 
beheld for the first time the locality that was to be the home of Mr.
Hallauer for the balance of his life. He secured lodgings with Sebastian
Boldus, who conducted a hotel on the site where Mr. Jno. Schrade now
resides, on Main Street, and obtained employment at once as a wood 
chopper with H.H. Smith & Co.
  The above narrative relating the experience of one of the early 
settlers here was written up solely for the reason that the experiences
and method of making the journey, impressions and incidents en route,
were a type of what a journey in those days to this country was, and is
typical of what the first settlers who came from over the seas experienced
from the time they left their native land until they arrived here and 
became some of the first settlers.

             Chapter II - A GLIMPSE OF THE VILLAGE

  Having found employment here, let us take a look at the settlement as
he found it and remembers it at that time.
  An unbroken forest covered the land in all directions. The two rivers,
then as now, after winding through miles of country, formed a juncture
and found a common outlet. It was at the junction of these two rivers
that the settlement known as Two Rivers had been founded.
  The population at that time (1848) probably did not exceed 200 souls
all told. On what is now known as the south side there were no buildings
of any kind, with the exception of a single fish shanty, located on the
present site of the Two Rivers Coal Company docks, inhabited by a
fisherman who was known by the name of John "Sixty."
  There were no buildings on the east or French side with the possible
exception of a fish shanty or two at the beach.
  The settlement or village really began at the eastern end of Main 
Street, and occupied the space between that street and the river south
of Main Street, and extended at the farthest as far west as the present
site of the plant of the Aluminum Mfg. Co. That portion nearest the river
from Main Street to Washington Street bridge had the most of the population.
Dense forests and underbrush encircled the settlement on all sides - all of
the east, west and north being an unbroken wilderness. To the north the
forests stood in their original grandeur, beginning about where the Eggers
Veneer Works now are, stretching in a southwesterly direction across the
present site of St. Luke's Catholic Church, and thence following a line
to the present Monroe Street bridge. Back of this imaginary line was wild
country covered with forests, with a few trails that had been blazed 
through it, and here and there a solitary settler endeavoring by clearing
away the timber and brush, to establish a farm. Timber being so plentiful
and saw mills so few, little or nothing could be had for the cutting and
hauling of them, and thousands of feet were burned by the early settlers
in order to hasten the clearing. So dense were the forests here at that
time right withing what is the very heart of the city today, that an
incident which actually occurred at that time will prove interesting.
Henry Hempke, a newcomer here, purchased a tract of land one day from
H.H. Smith & Company, for the purpose of building thereon a home. This
tract included the present site of the home of Joseph Schroeder on the
corner of Pine and Jefferson Streets. Mr. Hempke having been assigned
the location by Mr. Smith, began clearing away the timber at once.
Returning to the settlement after the first day's labor, he set out the
second day to resume clearing, but so dense was the forest and brush,
that notwithstanding his efforts, he was unable to locate the place he
had started to clear the previous day, and he was therefore obliged to
return and have H.H. Smith go with him a second time to locate the land
he had purchased. All this only a little over 50 years ago.
  Most of the buildings were one-story board structures, better known as
shanties, although there were also a number of log houses. Among the
settlers here at that time were H.H. Smith, of the firm of H.H. Smith &
Co., who conducted a general store, having in stock such goods as would
be apt to find sale in a frontier community, including a stock of drugs.
This firm also operated a saw mill on a site on the northern bank of the
Neshoto River, a few feet west of Washington Street bridge. This old mill
was a familiar land mark until destroyed by fire a few years ago. The
store was located on the site of the present premises of the Two Rivers
Mercantile Company. The old store building was later on purchased by Carl
Saubert and removed to his premises, where it still stands, and is at 
present utilized as a saloon and boarding house by Ira Levenhagen.
  Mr. L.S. House at that time conducted a boarding house known as the
Two Rivers house, on the present site of the home of Mrs. Urban Niquette.
Adolph Lemere had a boarding house in the old building still standing
and owned by the Lemere estate. This building was the first frame building
erected here. Sebastian Boldus also had a boarding house on the site now
occupied by the residence of F. Kaufman and John Schrade on Main Street.
Mr. Kuehn conducted a small store on the southwest corner of Jefferson
Street and Smith Avenue. Jos. Fisher did a little tailoring in the building
that stood on the bank of the river at the intersection of Main and West
Water Streets. Others here at that time engaged in various pursuits were
Joseph Gagnon, Oliver Pilon, Oliver Alonzo, Anton Cayo, Frank Alonzo.

             Chapter III - LUMBERING AND FISHING

  Lumbering and fishing were about the only industries here in the year
1848. The fishing was carried on principally by J.P. Clarke & Co., a firm
having their headquarters at Detroit. They employed a crew here all the
year round and caught all the fish by seining. These operations extended
from here to about where the Twin River light house now stands. Immense
quantities of fish were caught without much effort as the lake was then
teeming with fish, principally white fish, and it was believed that the
supply was inexhaustible. Sturgeon were so numerous and there being no
demand for them, they were thrown on the beach to die and decay. The white
fish and such others as there was a market for were salted and packed in
barrels and half barrels.
  Messrs. J.P. Clarke & Co. owned a number of sailing vessels which made
periodical trips here, taking aboard the catch from time to time and
bringing provisions, clothing, etc., for their help as well as the settlers.
This firm also purchased fish from other fishermen operating along the
lake shore. During the winter this firm reduced their crew to 6 or 8 men
and kept them at work repairing nets and making cord wood along the beach,
which was shipped out early in the Spring.
  Besides fishing, the only other industry here was lumbering and at that
time there was only one saw mill here owned and operated by H.H. Smith &
Co., who came here in 1847, which was located on the north bank of the
Neshoto River near Washington Street bridge. Immense tracts of timber were
standing in all directions and consisted principally of pine and hemlock.
Logging operations were carried on quite close to the settlement; one of
the camps being a mile up the Neshoto River and the other about where the
tannery bridge crosses the Mishicott River. The logs were rafted down in
Summer and hauled down on the ice in Winter. Considerable timber was also
being cut down right where the city now is.
  There were no piers or harbors here at that time, so that in order that
the lumber could be gotten to the market it was loaded on scows and towed
out into the lake where it was loaded on vessels. A few years later, about
1850 a pier was built out into the lake by a firm of H.H. Smith Co., which
was the only pier here until some time later when the firm of Isaac Taylor
& Co. of Racine built a saw mill on the present site of the Two Rivers
Coal docks and constructed a second pier. They also constructed a bridge at
their own expense across the river there, connecting with Jefferson Street.
This firm began business about the year 1852. The mill was built from the
lands bought by one Isaac Taylor of Racine and then sold to the Pierpont
Co., the new owners comprising Mr. Wheeler, Mr. H.S. Pierpont of Two Rivers
and Mr. Canfield of Manistee, Mich. Mr. Pierpont was the local manager. The
firm was in existence about five years when, the hard times coming out in
1857 and Mr. Canfield having extensive interests at Manistee, did not come
to the rescue of his Two Rivers interests, so that the Pierpont Co. failed.
Most of the pine having been cut on the land which they owned, the firm went
out of existence. The machinery was then moved to Manistee and operated by
the firm of Canfield & Co. together with their other interests there. After
the mill's failure the North pier was purchased by Mr. Nelson Pendleton and
later on purchased by Cooper & Jones, they being the last owners before its
  There were no schools here up to this time but during the Summer of 1851
Mrs. Diantha Hamilton, then Miss Diantha Smith, and a daughter of H.H. Smith,
opened a private school in a house on the site where the residence of W.
Ollendorf now stands. It was attended by about 20 pupils. The population of
the settlement including the town of Two Rivers in 1850 is given in the first
issue of the Manitowoc Herald which was printed in that year as 924 souls.
  Among the first settlers here of course were the Canadian French who came
here attracted by the good fishing and selected Two Rivers on account of its
proximity to the fishing banks. Then came New Englanders attracted by the
natural resources of the country, and in turn the Germans who came to work
at various vocations or go on farms. Besides these, people of all other
nationalities came but the Germans predominated and today they or their
descendants probably constitute a majority of the residents.

                  Chapter IV - THE INDIANS

  Besides the white settlers here there were still tribes of Indians who 
made their homes along the beach and back in the country on the banks of 
the Mishicott and Neshoto Rivers. They subsisted mainly by fishing and
hunting; deer, bear, and other game being very numerous here. The Indians
also engaged in rendering fish oil for which a market had been created
by the advent of the white man, the work of rendering the oil, of course,
being done by the squaws. They lived in tents and dressed in such apparel,
principally blankets, as they could readily secure from the settlers.
They numbered from 200 to 300 at that time. Some of the better known 
Indians being "Katoose" or "Quatoose" supposed to have been 120 years old.
They were friendly Indians and never molested the white but paid all of the
settlers frequent visits at their homes where they showed considerable 
interest in the various articles brought by them, such as pictures, books,
knick knacks, etc. They were as a rule very fond of whisky and would beg
for it or the necessary funds with which to purchase it. An Indian cemetery
was located at the spot now taken up by the foot of Main street, that is,
the eastern end of it, just south of the Lemere property. Somewhat later
another cemetery was laid out at the intersection of Jefferson Street or
about where St. Luke's Catholic Church is now located. For a time this 
was also used by the early settlers for their burial ground but a little
later the white settlers laid out a cemetery just north of the present
cemetery and the bodies of such white settlers as had been buried in the
Indian cemetery were removed and reinterred in the new one. That the
sites mentioned are correctly given is corroborated by the fact that
while the workmen were digging sewer trenches the remains of three Indians
were uncovered at the intersection of Jefferson and Pine Streets, and the
remains of one adult Indian were unearthed while the water mains were
being laid on Main Street between Jefferson and the river.
  The Indians here at that time were a part of the Potawatomie tribe. 
They were not of a warlike disposition and no instance is recalled here
where any of the white settlers in this locality were molested by them.
They were finally removed by the Government to the Oneida Indian 
Reservation in Brown County, but continued to visit this locality for
many years thereafter. In making these periodical trips they visited
some of the earlier settlers with whom they had become acquainted and
at the same time their squaws brought along bead work and work baskets
which they sold here. No visits have been made here for many years past,
  For years, perhaps centuries, the country along the banks of the Neshoto
and Mishicott as well as the beach between here and Molarch Creek had been
favorite camping sites of the red man. One of the favorite sites was on
the east side within the present city limits. The grounds here bear mute
testimony to the fact that this was at one time the center of a large
settlement, as the grounds are to this day covered with thousands of flint
chips, which were chipped from flints in the manufacture of arrow points,
spears, knives, etc. In addition, arrow heads of flint and copper, as well
as battle axes, pottery and trinkets of stone and copper, have been found
by the hundred. Another favorite camp was at the mouth of Molarch Creek,
six miles farther up the beach where innumerable evidences of a similar
nature have been found, proving that this also was a favorite camping site
of the Indians.
  It may also be of interest to mention the fact that the south side which
still retains the name of Mexico Side did not receive this appellation 
after the country by that name, but on account of an Indian Chief by that
name, Chief Mexico, who resided in this neighborhood during the Summer
months and for a time lived on the south side or Mexico Side.

                 Chapter V - THE REAL BEGINNINGS

  In the previous articles we have tried to set forth the appearance of the
city and its environments as they appeared in 1848-1851. We also gave a list
of such of the early settlers as could be recalled by some of the early
settlers living today.
  But 1848 was not the beginning of Two Rivers. Through the courtesy of Mr.
R.G. Thwaites, secretary of the State Historical Society, I have been enabled
to secure some information of the earlier history that is very interesting.
In the Wisconsin Historical Collection, Vol. XI, p. 211, the log book of
H.M. Sloop "Felicity", Pilot Samuel Roberts, under date of Nov. 4, 1779,
speaks of a certain trader named Monsieur Fay, which is at a place called
"Deux Rivers 18 leagues from Millwakey to the north." This is undoubtedly
the earlies record of any mention made of the present site of Two Rivers
or "Deaux (sic) Rivers" as he writes it. This Monsieur Fay was no doubt
one of the early traders who ventured in these parts and by friendly
intercourse managed to make advantageous bargains. Two Rivers owing to
its two rivers always was a favorite camping ground for the Indians as
the fishing and hunting here were no doubt the finest in this section.
  Nothing looking towards settling or developing the resources of this
place seems to have been done until about the year 1835. The first entry
of land made covering the present site of Two Rivers was made Sept. 10,
1835, by Daniel Wells, Jr., S.W. Beal and Morgan L. Martin. No doubt
traders and missionaries made their regular visits here and it is not
unlikely that some fishing was done in the lakes at this point before
this, but we have no records of the facts. In the Summer of 1836, however,
Judge John Lawe and Robert M. Eberts of Green Bay came here and purchased
a large section of timber land embracing about all the land on which the
city is now located. They immediately erected a small saw mill on the
north side of the Neshoto River, west of Washington Street bridge. This
was the original of the old saw mill which stood on the site until 
destroyed by fire a few years ago.
  The mill was put into operation at once under the management of Oliver
Longrine who is supposed to have been the first permanent white settler
of Two Rivers. This then marks the real beginning of Two Rivers. With 
the advent of the saw mill the first permanent settlers began to come
in. This Robert M. Eberts, by the way, is the person to whom the citizens
are indebted to for the public square. He donated this to the city for
a public square or market place, and for a time it was used here as such.
He also donated the site on which the Catholic Church now stands.
  In 1837 the great panic paralyzed the industries here to such an extent
that the county was almost depopulated, only one mill in the county
remaining in operation, but in a few years business again resumed normal
  A poll list of the voters for an election which occured Dec. 14, 1839,
gives the following list of qualified voters:

     Robert M. Eberts,            Joseph Edwards,
     John Lynn,                   Peter Allie,
     John E. Shepard,             James Young,
     Alexander Gasgo,             Alexander Bovrardy,
     Alexander Richardson,        Brigham Vansaw,
     Alfred Woods,                Samuel C. Chase.

  The original certified copy of this poll list has been preserved and is
now in possession of the Joseph Mann Library Association.
  During the Summer of 1840 Andrew J. Vieau of Green Bay began buying and
handling lumber manufactured at Two River. In the Fall Vieau came to Two
Rivers and took possession of John Lawe's old mill. He operated this mill
until 1847 when he sold it to H.H. Smith who later on became identified
with many of the city's earlier enterprises and was instrumental more
than any other man in making the settlement a permanent one by securing
and fostering other industries through which the permanency of the city
was established. In 1846-47 Vieau was the postmaster here and Oscar 
Burdicke carried the mail between Manitowoc and Two Rivers, his compen-
sation being the net revenue of the route.
  Tracing the order of development and settlement, we might say, that
it began with the trading of Indians for furs, followed by fishing with
the two rivers as a natural location for a port of entry. Then came the
saw mills with the logging operations and the shipping of the lumber in
the rough to the more settled section of the country.
  As the forests gave up their wealth of timber, it was only natural to
expect that some one would see the vast amount of hemlock and tamarack 
that grew here which, having no value as lumber, still was valuable for
its bark, provided a market for the bark could be had. And so it came to
pass that the first of the manufacturing institutions in the shape of a
tannery which took the raw material and turned out the finished product
came to be located here to take advantage of the inexhaustible supply of

              Chapter VI - THE TANNING INDUSTRY

  It was in the Winter of 1851 that Cyrus Whitcomb (photo) came to Two Rivers to
begin the erection of the tannery to become known as the Wisconsin Leather
Co., the members of the firm being Cyrus Whitcomb, Rufus Allen, Sr., and
Geo. W. Allen. Mr. Whitcomb was the only member of the firm who made his
home here and in the years that followed became well known and liked by
the many men in his employ.
  The building of the tannery was begun at once on a site 1-1/2 miles north
of the Two Rivers settlement, the timber for the frames being hewn right in
the forest at hand. The lumber was brought by boat up the rivers, there 
being no road until a year later. The brick was brought by vessel from
Milwaukee and many of the men were brought from the East, where some of the
members of the firm had been operating a tannery at Cazenovia, Madison Co.,
N.Y. The first tannery built was located on the east bank of the Mishicott
River, just east of the present tannery bridge and its location was marked
for years by a tall square brick chimney, a monument to a departed industry
long after the old tannery had been discontinued.
  About 100 men were employed. The Company bought about 1,200 acres of 
Government land which was covered with a growth of hemlock for 50c. per 
acre and the bark was peeled from the trees within a stone's throw of the
tannery. The hides were brought from Chicago and Milwaukee by boat. Mixed
grades of leather were made, including harness leather, sole leather, etc.
The machinery for the original plant came from Milwaukee, the engine being
of 80 H.P.
  As soon as operations began at the tannery it became necessary to provide
quarters for some of the help although a good proportion of them always
lived down the river at the settlement or village of Two Rivers. Still it
was advisable to build houses and provide for those wishing to live near
the plant, and accordingly seven large homes were built and also a boarding
house for 40 hands. A provision store was also started as well as a black-
smith shop and stables for the horses were built. A school was started here
in the wing of a shanty attached to a boarding house in the Winter of 1851-
  During the Summer months the leather was shipped out by boat which stopped
at the piers twice every week, but during the Winter months the leather was
hauled by team to Milwaukee. It took exactly a week to make the round trip
and just so many miles had to be made each day or the trip could not be made
on time. Usually the trip was begun here at 6 o'clock on Monday morning. The
first day took the leather a little distance beyond Sheboygan where a stop-
ping place was arranged for. The second day, Tuesday, brought them to Port
Washington, then a small settlement and on the third day, Wednesday after-
noon, at about 4 o'clock, if there had been no mishap, the teams arrived
at the Company's warehouse in Milwaukee and immediately loaded with hides
and provisions, for the return trip, leaving early Thursday morning and
arriving at the tannery on Saturday afternoon. In 1861 a second tannery
was built south of the first one and for a time both were operated. Later
on the first plant was torn down and the second one operated alone until
1887 when the supply of bark being exhausted, it was deemed advisable to
close the plant. In 1891 it accidentally caught fire and was burned down.
All that now marks the sight of this early industry is the large quantity
of spent bark covering acres of ground on which little or no vegetation
grows. The neighborhood also still goes by the name of "The Tannery."
  The Wisconsin Leather Co. was also the fore-runner of two other tanneries,
that later came here. The first of the newcomers being Carl Winkelmiller
who started a small tannery to the east of the northern approach to Washing-
ton Street bridge in 1856 and continued it up to 1888. In 1870 the firm of
H. Lohman & Co. was formed and the firm built a tannery on the site of David
Smoke's saw mill and continued operations up to 1887. The discontinuance of
the tanning industry in all of these cases here being due to the fact that
the supply of bark for tanning purposes was about exhausted in this section
and the expense of getting it by water or rail being greater here than at
points where boat or rail facilities were such that the raw material could
be delivered right at the plants without hauling by teams.

                Chapter VII - THE CHAIR FACTORY

  But it was its woodworking industries that was to give the settlement its
permanency and make it known from one end of the land to the other and for
that matter throughout the civilized world in time. It was the timber and 
saw mills that paved the way for the first woodworking manufacturers and
it was these early beginnings on which the foundation of the city of today
was gradually built.
  But before we proceed it might be well to make the point that long before
ever white man set his foot on these grounds, Two Rivers had been a manu-
facturing site. On the French or east side the piles of flint chips broken
or chipped from flint rocks as they were being shaped into arrows and other
stone implements are abundant evidence that here was the site of an ancient
industry. Mingled with the piles of chips of all sizes and colors, arrow
heads, some perfect, some broken in the course of manufacture can be found.
Besides this, fragments of pottery and the bones of the dead give mute
evidence that a permanent site of abode existed here for years before the
advent of the white man. But it is with the modern settlement that we are
dealing. Up to this time, viz.: 1850, there were no manufacturing industries
here except that in a sense saw mills might come under that classification.
But no finished goods were made here and the saw mills would only forshadow
the end unless manufacturing institutions located here.
  Through the assistance of Mr. C.H. Albers who was the first superintendent
of the pail factory here, we were enabled to obtain a great deal of infor-
mation relative to the first woodworking industry here, this being the
manufacture of chairs by the New England Mfg. Co. 
  The following items relative to the chair factory were obtained from Mrs.
Elizabeth A. Jennison, of Omaha, Neb., a daughter of the first superintendent,
William Honey (photo). This Wm. Honey was murdered at Fond du Lac, Wis., in the 
Winter of 1868, where he was then engaged in the poultry business. His
widow is now living in Omaha at the age of 95 years, and in the enjoyment
of fair health and all of her faculties, excepting being nearly blind.
  The chair factory was built in the Summer of 1856 by the New England Mfg.
Co. The company was composed of Aldrich Smith & Co. of Two Rivers, Wm.
Honey, Thomas Burns, Charles Jennison, and probably Alanson Hall of Massa-
chusetts. Mr. Honey was superintendent of the sawing out of the stock and
the preparation of the stock for use, Charles Jennison of the chair and
furniture making, and Thomas Burns of the painting and finishing of the
manufactured articles, and Mr. Hall worked at painting in the factory.
Mr. Jennison gave up the superintendency of the chair making department 
in 1858 or 59 and was succeeded by Wm. Johnson. The hard times of 1857
and 58 were disastrous to the New England Mfg. Co. and the property came into 
the hands of Aldrich, Smith & Co. and their successors. In 1859 John N. Burns 
(a son of Thomas Burns), rented the property and assumed the operation of the 
factory. Mr. Geo. Simonds of Newbury, Ohio, succeeded Mr. Johnson as superin-
tendent of the chair making department. John H. Burns operated the works until 
after 1862 and it was operated by Joseph Mann (photo) soon after he came to Two Rivers.
  Mr. Honey remained with the factory until about 1864. Mr. J.B. Lord of
Gardner, Mass., writes as follows: "I arrived in Two Rivers in the month of
September, 1856, the chair factory buildings being built and most of the
machinery installed. The engine was made in Fitchburg, Mass., and was shipped
to Two Rivers by propeller from Buffalo late in the Fall of 1856, but was
caught at Mackinaw in the ice and did not arrive at its destination until
early in the Spring of 1857.
  When part of the machinery was in running order, Geo. W. Honey (a son of
Wm. Honey), and myself made, partly by hand, the first chairs, some office
chairs for the Lake House."
  Geo. W. Honey is now holding some U.S. Government position in Washington,
D.C., and Mr. Lord is employed in one of the large chair factories in 
Gardner, Mass., to which city he went immediately after the close of the
war, he having been a member of the 27th Wis. Regiment, in which he enlisted
in 1862.

               Chapter VIII - THE PAIL FACTORY

  The building of the pail factory was commenced in March, 1857, by Henry C.
Hamilton & Co.; the company being Aldrich, Smith & Co., Henry C. Hamilton
of Two Rivers and William H. Metcalf, a brother-in-law of Hamilton, of
Lockport, N.Y. (photo of H.H. Hamilton)
  The firm of Aldrich, Smith & Co. consisted of William Aldrich, H.H. Smith,
generally called "Deacon Smith," and a Mr. Medbury of Milwaukee, Wis. The
architect of the pail factory was Homer Glass a millwright of ability, who
superintended the erection of the building, which was 40 x 120 feet two
stories and an attic, with an addition on south side for saw mill of 14 x 26
feet, he installing two boilers, an engine, shafting and pullys, a muley
saw, a cut-off saw, and two bench circular saws of 36 and 40 inches diameter.
After completing the work he moved to Racine where he died several years ago.
Mr. G.H. Albee arrived in Two Rivers March 30, 1857, he having been engaged
by Mr. H.H. Smith to superintend the erection of the pail and tub making
machinery and the operation of the factory.
  Obed Mattoon, a retired chair manufacturer of Milwaukee now and Harrison
Cheney, of West Swanzey, N.H. (Mr. Albee's native place), accompanied him.
They came on the schooner "Brilliant" of Milwaukee from that city, as there
was then no railroad north of Milwaukee. An uncommon incident occurred on
their trip. The first morning out from Milwaukee, they found Lake Michigan
perfectly still and covered as far as could be seen with a thin coating of
ice, about one-half inch thick, through which the schooner had to plough its 
way at a slow rate of speed. By about ten o'clock the ice had melted or been 
broken up.
  The schooner landed them on the north pier about 1 P.M. of the second day 
out. They immediately went to a hotel on the north side of Main St. next to 
the East River bridge, kept by Mr. House, for their dinner. Later in the day 
they had their baggage carried to the Lake House, which had just been opened 
by L.H. Phillips, who kept the house for transient and local customers for 
some dozen or more years and where Mattoon and Cheney remained as long as they 
stayed in the place. Mr. Albee remained until married in the Spring of 1859. 
Mattoon and Cheney secured employment in the chair factory until the pail 
factory was in running order, when they had jobs of painting there, and Mr. 
Albee commenced on the work of the pail factory. The piles for the foundation 
were then about half driven. John Millis was in charge of the pile driver, and 
Pat. Brazil drove the team. The river was open and there had been but a few 
inches of snow during the Winter, but on April 15th snow to the depth of 18 
inches fell. It remained but a few days.
  Indians were quite plenty here at that time, bands of 6 to a dozen being
in the village every few days. Upon going to the factory grounds one morning
quite early and before any of the workmen were there, Mr. Albee says, "I
discovered an Indian's 'Dug Out,' or a round bottomed log canoe, tied up at
the river bank. It was the first I had seen, and having a Yankee's inquisit-
iveness, like the boy who cut the bellows open to see what made the wind,
I decided to investigate it. I therefore got into it and attempted to sit
down with the result that my next move was to crawl out of the river a 
wetter but wiser man, a dry suit of clothes being the next most necessary
thing to get. I let the Indians' canoes alone after that. Four or five years 
later I had a canoe of my own which I used nearly every day during the Summer, 
the bottom of which was of such form, that a 'tip over' was almost impossible."
  The woodenware making machinery first installed in the factory consisted of 
one tub stave saw, two pail stave saws (the heading was sawed upon the 40-inch 
bench saw), one tub turning lathe and matcher, three pail lathes and matchers, 
one heading planer, one bottom jointer, one pair of hoop rolls, one pail and 
one tub hoop punch, one tub bottom cutter, one pail bottom cutter, one pail 
ear cutter, and one paint grinding mill. All of this was on the second and 
third floors. Within 6 or 8 years the factory was extended upon its east end 
88 feet, another tub lathe was installed, an engine lathe and iron planer 
added, a feed mill and also a machinery for making barrel covers and hand 
sleds put in. Ten brick dry houses supplied the dry stock.
  Upon the lower floor David Pratt of Swanzey, N.H., installed two clothes
pin lathes, a pin slotter and saws, of his one, and made the clothes pins
for an agreed price per box, the factory furnishing the stock in the board.
Pratt remained nearly two years when he sold to Mr. E.E. Bolls who added
broom handles, he selling out in 1861 to S.J. Fay and Mr. Albee, who put 
in, in 1863, gang saws and improved clothes pin lathes, and selling out in
1865 to the factory owners.
  The financial crash of the Fall of 1857 threw the firms of Aldrich, Smith
& Co., and that of H.C. Hamilton & Co. into difficulities too great for
their resources and an assignment was made to S.H. Seaman & Co. which was
composed of S.H. Seaman and Conrad Baetz. Mr. William Aldrich retiring and
the firm of Henry C. Hamilton & Co. being wiped out. Messrs. S.H. Seaman &
Co. operated the business of Aldrich, Smith & Co., which included the "Old
Mill" on the north bank of the Neshoto river, near the Washington St. bridge,
the "New Mill" directly opposite on the south side of the river, the black-
smith shop, store, Lake House, several dwellings, farm and timber lands in
Manitowoc and Brown counties, teams, barns and warehouses, and they also
operated the pail factory until the Winter of 1860-61, when Mr. Joseph Mann
of the firm of Mann Bros., Milwaukee, came to Two Rivers and then or soon
after, purchased an interest in said properties, H.H. Smith retaining an
interest, but S.H. Seaman & Co. retiring from the management, which Mr. Mann
then assumed. Leopold Mann (photo) came to Two Rivers three or four years later and
acquired an interest in the business and assumed in part its management.
Photo of Henry Mann

                  Chapter IX - THE SAW MILLS

  The aforesaid "Old Mill" was the pioneer mill in this part of the state;
judging from its equipment, says Mr. Albee. Its main line of shafting was
octagonal, about 6 or 7 inches in diameter, had a turned journal near each
end and clutch couplings, the pieces being about 10 feet long. The machinery
consisted in 1857 of two flue boilers, an engine, a circular log saw (perhaps
a smaller circular or a muley), lath mill, slab saw, lath bolter, a Daniels
planer, and a feed-grinding mill and also an engine lathe of then, modern
make, 16-in. swing and 12-ft. beg.
  The "New Mill" contained a circular log saw, bolter and lath saws, and a
siding mill for sawing siding from 6-in. cants with thick and thin edges
alternately. This mill ceased running about 1861 or 62.
  A mill called "The Pierpont Mill" stood on the ground now occupied by the
Coal Co., and Judge Henry S. Pierpont (photo)was the local representative and 
manager, the Company owning the north pier from which their product was
shipped. This mill ceased running about 1858 or 1859 we understand. N.
Newcomb was the outside superintendent.
  The Lindstedt Mill which was on the ground now occupied by Mr. Fred 
Eggers Veneering Works, Mr. Albee has no recollection of being run as a
lumber mill after 1857, but if he remembers correctly, it was operated
as a flour mill, 6 or 7 years later. Julius Lindstedt, now or lately of
Manitowoc was interested in it. With reference to this mill, Julius 
Lindstedt, son of the above, writes:
  "The Lindstedt millsite property consisted of Lots 1 and 2, Block 53, City 
of Two Rivers. The same was purchased by Frederick Lindstedt Sept. 20, 1855. 
The purchase price for the property at that time was $2,000. The name of the 
firm at that time was Frederick Lindstedt & Co., the other partner being 
Daniel Lindstedt. My father, Julius Lindstedt, was not a partner in the 
business, but was in their employ at the time. I am advised by old settlers 
that Frederick Lindstedt was at the head of the business and the same was 
operated for a number of years, but owing to the death of Frederick Lindstedt 
in 1857 (he was murdered on the roadside between the old "Kuehn's farm" and 
the City of Two Rivers) the business was discontinued. The facts in the case 
probably were that owing to the death of Frederick Lindstedt, the business was 
not properly managed and they were, in a measure, forced to liquidate the same."
  David Smoke had a lumber mill north of the Lindstedt Mill, which was operated 
little if any after 1857. North of Smoke's Mill was one owned probably by Russell 
and Harvey, or Harvey and Russell, and which was called "The Harvey Mill." This 
mill burned down about 1 o'clock P.M. one day early in the Summer of 1858. There 
were no manufacturing industries carried on upon the east side of the Mishicott 
River, excepting the making of fish barrels by hand, fishing being an important 
industry at that time. The "Pound Nets" came into use about 1860. Albert Barry 
kept the old Government light house, which was located some distance east of 
the mouth of the river. In the Summer or Fall of 1860, Mr. Barry moved to the 
west side of the Mishicott River and it was then occupied by James Scott for 
  It may be of interest to the present generation to learn when pails were
first made by machinery, Jehiel Wilson, of South Keene, N.H., was the first
maker of the then called "patent pails," which was probably about 1825 or
26. Soon after, Benjamin Page of Swanzey, N.H., a town adjoining Keene,
took out machinery for cloth dressing and put in pail making machinery. This
was in 1828. The making of pails, tubs, kanakins, and other kinds of wooden-
ware has since that date been carried out in Swanzey and Keene, the writer
having been an employee in three shops in Swanzey during his early life. It
is now carried on in four places in Swanzey, and one or two in Keene, also
in a score of places in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts, the timber
for it growing up from burnt over grounds in 25 or 30 years to a diameter
of 12 to 16 inches.
  The dates of the building of the chair and pail factories are correct, but
those of the changes of management may not be, but are approximately so. Mr.
Albee remained with the pail factory until November, 1866, when he moved to
Menasha, Wis., and taking up his residence in Neenah a year later, where his
home has been since then, but having been away from there about five years
at two or three times since 1869. Bradford Smith, the oldest son of Deacon
H.H. Smith (photo), succeeded him in the superintendency of the factory. After his
decease, Chris. Johannes, Sr., succeeded him, he having been one of the
earliest employees of the factory under Mr. Albee's supervision.

                 Chapter X - REMINISCENCES

  In speaking of some of the early days, Mr. Albee says: "Some incidents 
which occurred 50 years ago, may be of interest to the present generation.
In 1856, or a little earlier the Manitowoc & Mississippi Railroad was 
started, it running from Manitowoc to Menasha, a distance of about 40 miles.
Considerable grading was done, some of which has since been utilized by the
St. Paul road, they using several miles of the old grade from Menasha east,
and probably in other places. The grading was in progress in the Summer of
1857, but the approaching stringency in financial circles being felt
severely by those who were promoting the road, some of those in Manitowoc
who were interested in the enterprise endeavored to boost the road along
by means of a mass meeting, a parade, with band of music, public speaking,
etc., to which the people of Two Rivers were invited. The invitation was
accepted by some of the more jovial element, and the late Robert Suettinger
who conducted a hardware store, at the corner of Main and Washington Streets,
for many years, was chosen as chief engineer, to manage Two River's part in
the parade. One of Aldrich, Smith & Co.'s teams was procured, a long reach
put into the wagon, a long platform built upon the wagon, a cabin built upon
the platform near its rear end to represent the engineer's cab, and the
tender, a piece of an old smoke stack, mounted upon the platform, and 
extending horizontally forward for the engineer's 'Cab,' the bell being,
I think, a large cow bell, with rope for ringing it, running to the cab.
Fred Arndt, then an employee of the Aldrich, Smith Co. (who later enlisted,
went through the War of 1862 to 1865, and soon after the war bought a farm
4 miles west of Neenah, which he farmed for many years in connection with
his trade of butcher, buying and selling cattle, etc., but two or three
years ago gave it to his sons to run and moved into the city), was appointed
'fireman' for the 'locomotive.' The 'tender' was provided with an abundant
supply of fuel, which consisted of material that would produce an abundance
of dense black smoke, when ordered to do so by the engineer, and ring the 
  You can well imagine the amusement the outfit made for the spectators and
participants. After doing their part in the parade and quaffing a few glasses
of lager, the party started on their return trip, late in the evening. The
road was not the best, the load was heavy, and it was necessary to occasionally
stop the horses for a rest. Arriving at a sandy stretch between 'Kuehn's 
Farm' and the village of Two Rivers the team was halted and the fireman 
ordered to fire up so as to go into the village under a good head of steam,
which he proceeded to do. After waiting until his patience was exhausted,
he looked out of the cab, to learn the reason of the long delay, when to his
surprise and chagrin he discovered that the horses had been unhitched from
the wagon and the men and horses were far ahead on their way to the village.
He walked home that night, and always accused Mr. Suettinger as the perpe-
trator of the prank."
  When the financial crash of 1857 came, money was a thing of the past. 
Wages of men dropped, common laborers commanding but 75c. per day, and
"orders on the store" were the principal currency. $10.00 in bankable funds
being more than many families had in a year. Provisions, such as wheat, rye
flour, corn meal, and potatoes were low in price, but labor was not plenty.
One incident I recall proves this. An Irishman living in Mishicott secured
employment at the pail factory in the Winter of 1858 at 75 cents per day.
When Saturday night arrived he took for a part of his pay a sack, 98 lbs.,
of flour, which he carried to Mishicott, nearly, or quite 8 miles on his
shoulders. After the commencement of the war, for convenience in dealing
with their employees, many manufacturers issued what was called "script"
which was somewhat like bank bills and was issued in dollars and fractions
thereof. These representations of value soon received the name of "shin
plasters," and were payable in merchandise only, but were kept in circul-
ation by some business houses up to as late as 1875 or a little later.
Laws have since been passed, making their issuance illegal. After the
commencement of the war and the call for 300,000 more men, the younger
element became interested and began talking about enlisting. Some of the
Democrats were opposed to the war, but not all of them, a few enlisting,
but a majority of those enlisting were believers in the principles of
the Republican party. Public opinion was such that no active opposition
was made by the Democrats in Two Rivers, and several who were prominent
in the Democratic ranks took active and prominent parts in securing 
enlistments. The beginning of enlisting in Two Rivers as I remember it,
was started by the chair and pail factory employees, one afternoon, by
organizing a company with fife and drum to march up to the tannery, going
up on the east side and returning on the west side of the Mishicott River.
A raid was made before starting on a pile of broom handles in the pail
factory for "guns." The writer was one that carried a "gun" in that march.
Upon the return of the company that night, or soon after, the following
persons agreed to enlist, although no papers were then signed to that 

               Chapter XI - THE BOYS OF '61

  The following is a list as near as Mr. Albee can remember of those who
agreed to enlist from Two Rivers after that enthusiastic march to the
tannery and back. This of course does not constituted(sic) by any means,
all of those that enlisted from Two Rivers to serve in the ranks of the
Union Army.

          *Henry C. Hamilton,               Wm. Hurst,
           Lafayette Smith,                 Wm. Henry,
           B.J. Van Valkenburg,             Isaac Kingsland,
           Chas. Knapp,                     J.B. Lord,
           Geo. T. Burns,                   Anson A. Allen,
          *A.J. Hamlet,                     Thomas McMellen,
           Chas. Whitcomb,                  Henry Hempke,
           James Sym,                      *William Sutherland,
           Wm. Leard,                       James Allee
    All of the 21st Wis. Inf.           All of the 27th Wis. Inf.

  James Sym, now of the Wis. Vet. Home, at Waupace, adds to the above:
  Reuben Kingsland and John Shram of the 7th Wis. Battery;
  John Phillips, of the 6th Wis. Inf.;
  Aug. Weilep, 16th Regulars.
  John Arnolds, Thomas Waggoner and Arnold Waggoner, of the 5th Wis. Inf.
  Thomas McMellen returned as captain, and Wm. Henry as 1st lieutenant in
the 27th. Isaac Kingsland was wounded at the battle of Jenkins Ferry, was
taken prisoner, and died later. Chas. Whitcomb was wounded at the battle
of Perryville, Oct. 8th, 1862. Charles Knapp was wounded at the battle of
Peach Tree Creek, Aug. 7th, 1863.
  The names of those preceded by a * died in the South and of those reported
by Mr. Sym, the writer cannot say that all returned to Two Rivers. William
Leard of the 21st Reg. and Lafayette Smith, probably enlisted from Mishicott.
  So many of the pail factory employees signifying their intention of going
that Mr. Joseph Mann was desirous that Mr. Albee remain so as to break in new
hands and keep the factory running, and as an inducement to the boys for his
release, promised to donate to the families of those going the sum of two
hundred dollars. This was accepted by them and Mr. Albee was allowed to
remain, he reluctantly agreeing to do so, but with less reluctance on account
of the ill health of his wife, and age of the oldest of his two children
being less than two years.
  As the war progressed and the stories of suffering and the death of the
soldiers were received by the people of Two Rivers, their enthusiasm about
enlisting grew less, so that drafts had to be resorted to in order to keep
up the necessary army, each town being assigned her quota, according to the 
number of able bodied men living there.
  In the Winter of 1865 a draft was ordered for the town, the quota being
as he remembers it, 41. At any rate, it would take every able bodied man,
and as Mr. Albee was then in that class, according to Dr. H.O. Crane of the
examining corps, he was sure of being on of the "elect." The pail factory
owners being still anxious that he remain as its superintendent, he was
supplied with the necessary funds and told to go to Green Bay and procure
a substitute, that being the Provost Marshal's headquarters for the northern
part of the state, and persons desiring to go as substitutes going there
to find purchasers. He stayed there about a week before one could be found,
when Mr. August Hyat, of Sheboygan County who had a few days previously 
paid all of his money, $400.00 for a team of horses and engaged in drawing
supplies from Green Bay to Escanaba on the ice and lost his whole outfit
by the horses breaking through the ice, offered himself.
  Mr. Hyat having been examined and pronounced "sound," a bargain was soon
arranged, Mr. Albee paying him $737.50 for his substitute for one year.
This was March 9th, 1865, but a little over a month before the war closed.
Mr. Albee learned that he was sent to Madison, Wis., and kept there about
six months and then discharged. The pail company paid one-half the cost of
the substitute, and he the remainder. Within sixty days after procuring a
substitute Mr. Albee, in working under the pail factory boilers, on his
knees, the cords of one of his limbs was so stretched as to cause one knee
joint to occasionally slip out of place, and therefore disqualifying him
as a soldier. But the war was ended and he had no regrets on account of the
expense incurred by his share of military duty.
  In the Summer of 1863, the "Indian Scare" of Manitowoc and Sheboygan
counties occurred. In some manner the rumor became current that the Indians
were going to make a raid upon Manitowoc and Two Rivers, burn the buildings
and kill the people. How the rumor started is unknown. They seldom came into
the village those days, they being more general around Green Bay, Stockbridge
and the Oneida Reservation, and when they had come around the Lake Shore
towns, their intercourse had always been friendly with the people, so that
it was not believed by the majority that any attention should be paid to the
rumor, notwithstanding which it was reported that several families residing
west of Manitowoc deserted their homes and fled to Manitowoc for safety. 
There were no particularly timid ones in Two Rivers, although it was a
prominent topic for some days.

                  Chapter XII - A MEMORABLE 4th

  The 4th of July in the year 1852 which, owing to the 4th occurring on
Sunday, was celebrated on the 5th, is one that will never be forgotten
by many of the earlier settlers.
  In order that the nation's anniversary might be duly celebrated, a
committee of villagers had made arrangements for a parade and picnic at
which a luncheon and refreshments of all kinds where to be served without
charge. Hosea Allen was in charge of the arrangements and invitations had
been sent to the residents of Manitowoc, Sheboygan and Milwaukee to 
participate in the festivities.
  Accordingly friends in Milwaukee arranged an excursion to Two Rivers 
on the side-wheeler steamer "Planet" which left Milwaukee on Sunday after-
noon, July 4th, at about 6 o'clock for Two Rivers, stopping at Sheboygan
and Manitowoc en route to take on additional excursionists. The steamer
with a large number of excursionists on board arrived at the pier here
about 9 o'clock Monday morning and was met by practically all the villagers
who accorded them an enthusiastic and noisy welcome, in true western style.
  A line of march was then formed with Hosea Allen at the head and Ed.
Boutin as marshal of the day, followed by the band and the crowd. After a
short parade in honor of the occasion, they were escorted to a grove of
tall pine trees, which occupied the site where Mr. Kessman resided for
many years. Here tables and benches had been erected and the visitors and
others were treated to an elaborate dinner which was to be followed by
a program of speech-making, games and a general jollification.
  In order that the celebration might be duly ushered in, an old cannon
which had formerly constituted a part of the defenses of Fort Howard,
near Green Bay, and which had been brought here sometime previous, was
brought into service.
  The committee on arrangements had procured six 50-lb. kegs of powder
and engaged Ed. LaPoint, a veteran of the Mexican War, to fire the 
salutes. The cannon was planted on a knoll or hill which occupied a site
approximately on the northwest corner of the public school grounds. The
knoll was surmounted by a flag pole 175 feet high. For convenience in
handling and loading the cannon, the powder from five kegs had been
sewed up in flannel bags containing one pound of powder each, each bag
constituting one charge. The other keg was opened and left in this
condition, the powder being used in priming the cannon. All of the 
powder both in the bags and keg was placed conveniently near at hand.
  Promptly at four o'clock in the morning the first salute was fired
and continued at regular intervals up to ten o'clock in the morning, 
when a disaster occurred that caused sorrowing and suffering to many
and turned the day of joy and pleasure into sorrow and suffering.
  It seems that some of the younger element were engaged in shooting
fire crackers and began throwing them promiscuously about. Suddenly
one of the lighted fire crackers was thrown into the keg containing
the loose powder which had been used for priming the cannon. Instantly
a sheet of flame shot forth igniting the other powder contained in the
bags, which, igniting all at once, exploded and flames and powder were
shot out in every direction for a distance of 100 feet or more. When
the smoke had cleared away it was found that 36 people had been more or
less severly injured, the clothes catching fire in many instances, 
adding to the horror.
  Of those most severely injured were the following: Henry Decker, Henry
Rife, Albert Jackson, Oliver Pilon and Moses Bunker. Friends immediately
offered every assistance, private homes were thrown open, notable that of
Mr. Gotlieb Berger at that time residing near the Washington House, where
the injured and badly burned were wrapped in cotton and sweet oil.
  Of the victims Albert Jackson was so severely injured by the force of
the explosion, besides receiving burns, that he died within a few hours
after the accident. Of the others all recovered but many were sadly dis-
figured and will retain the scars the balance of their lives. Moses Bunker
was probably, next to Jackson, the most badly injured, and although only
eight years of age at the time, and badly burned, he finally recoverd and
still lives to recite the history of that day.
  The steamer "Planet" with such of the injured and others of the 
excursionists immediately left for Milwaukee to procure more sweet oil and
cotton and other medical supplies as might be needed and returned the
following day in record breaking time with the much needed supplies.
  The old cannon used on that occasion did service for nearly 50 years on
similar occasions after that, and finally came to a glorious end by
bursting while firing a salute on the occasion of Schley's victory at
Santiago, July 4, 1898. Fortunately no one was injured when she burst.
The victory was evidently too great for the limited capacity of the 
cannon to properly give vent to its pent up feelings, so with a supreme
effort it burst.

                   APPENDIX - JOHN LAWE (photo)

  John Lawe was born in York, England, about 1789. His father was an officer
in the English service, his mother a Miss Franks, a Jewess.
  His uncle, Jacob Franks, educated him at Quebec, Canada, and took him into
the Indian trade in 1797 when he employed him as clerk at his trading post in
Green Bay. About 1801 he married Therese Rankin. Her father was a Scotch-
Indian trader and her mother was of the Chippewa Indian tribe.
  His uncle returned to Montreal and left his business in Mr. Lawe's care and
later sold out to him entirely. Mr. Lawe made his home at Green Bay until his
death, Feb. 11th, 1846. His body lies buried in the old settlers' lot at
Woodlawn Cemetery, Green Bay.
  During the War of 1812 he held a commission as lieutenant in the British
  About 1823 he was appointed Associate Judge of the County Court under the
laws of Michigan Territory, and several years after this he was appointed
Probate Judge of Brown County, which at that time comprised nearly all of
northern Wisconsin.
  He followed the trade of dealer in Indian goods and traded with the Indians,
frequently journeying to the pay grounds in person. He was one of the partners
in the Green Bay Company that afterwards was acquired by the American Fur
Company and for many years was one of the agents for the American Fur Company
at Green Bay.
  He acquired large holdings of land at many important points in Wisconsin,
including Two Rivers, and died a man of considerable wealth. 
  He had two sons and six daughters. One son died unmarried, the other, Geo.
W. Lawe, married Catherine Meade and settled in Kaukauna and is known as the
Father of Kaukauna; he died in 1897 survived by one son, John Lawe. He is
still living and has one son, Leo Lawe, of Green Bay.
  Judge John Lawe was an Episcopalian in religious belief and a supporter
of that church in Green Bay.

                        G. H. ALBEE  (photo)

  G.H. Albee was born at West Swanzey, New Hampshire, Jan. 2, 1831. He 
learned pail turning in 1850 and continued at his trade until 1854, when
he went to Angelica, N.Y., as superintendent in building and operating a
pail and tub factory. He came to Two Rivers in 1857 to build and super-
intend the pail and tub factory, and remained 9 years. On April 26, 1859,
he was married to Mary Burns, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Burns,
of Two Rivers, but formerly of Lowell, Mass.
  In 1866 he removed to Neenah to take charge of the manufacturing end of
the Neenah Woodenware Co., and remained in their employ with the exception
of several short intervals until 1882.
  At present he is engaged in soliciting patents for inventors making his
home at Neenah, Wis.

                      JOHN H. BURNS

  John H. Burns, son of Thomas Burns (photo), was born in Lowell, Mass., in 1833.
He was married there and moved to Two Rivers with his father's family in
1856, and entered the employment of the New England Mfg. Company as book-
keeper. After the financial crash of 1857 and the going out of existence
of that company he rented the plant and operated it for about five years,
after which he moved to Neenah, Wis., rented a building and with a Mr.
Fisher, carried on the chair and furniture business until the Spring of
1870 when the building was burned. He then moved his family to Austin,
the Capital of Texas, and entered the office as a bookkeeper of the then
State Treasurer of Texas, Mr. George W. Honey, one of the two men who
made the first set of chairs in The New England manufactory in the Spring
of 1857.
  Later Mr. Burns moved to Galveston, Texas, and entered the United States
Revenue Service and died there, May 1, 1898.

J.K. Burns photo from this book